What does Totha mean in the Kashmiri language
The Project Gutenberg eBook, Mineralogia Polyglotta, by Christian Keferstein
Title: Mineralogia Polyglotta
Author: Christian Keferstein
Release Date: September 18, 2005 [eBook # 16718]
[Date last updated: May 8, 2006]
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Royal Prussian Councilor.
Royal Prussian Ober-Bergrathe,
Professor of Mineralogy at the Friedrichs University in Halle,
ERNST FRIEDRICH GERMAR,
my esteemed, dear brother-in-law,
dedicated to the most intimate love and respect.
First chapter. Common names.
Second chapter. Gem and related things.§. 1. Diamond.
§. 2. Pearls.
§. 3. Rothe gems and related stones.
§. 4. Green gems and related rocks.
§. 5. Yellow gems and related rocks.
§. 6. Blue gems and related rocks.
§. 7. White gems and related rocks.
§. 8. The 12 gems in the decorations of the high priests by the Hebrews.
third chapter. Stones, earth and related things.§. 1. Quartz group.
§. 2. Feldspath group.
§. 3. Mica, talc and clay groups.
§. 4. Lime group.
§. 5. River Path Group.
§. 6. Phosphate of lime.
§. 7. Gypsium or sulphate of lime.
§. 8. Barite group.
§. 9. Strontian group.
§. 10. Borax group.
Chapter Four. Salts and related things.§. 1. Table salt.
§. 2. Saltpetre.
§. 3. Glauber's salt.
§. 4. Epsom salts.
§. 5. Alum.
§. 6. Mineral alkalis and related items.
§. 7. Kali, Potasche and related things.
§. 8. Borax.
§. 9. ammonium.
§. 10. Vitriol.
Fifth chapter. Burning minerals, i.e. the coal-rich ones and generally those that are commonly understood by this name.§. 1. Mountain balm.
§. 2. Naphtha.
§. 3. Petroleum.
§. 4. pitch.
§. 5. Gagat.
§. 6. Coal.
§. 7. Graphite.
§. 8. Sulfur.
Sixth chapter. Metals and related items.§. 1. Metal, ore, ore grade.
§. 2. Gold.
§. 3. silver.
§. 4. Mercury.
§. 5. Platina together with the related metals occurring with it, palladium, rhodium, osmium, iridium.
§. 6. Tellurium or Silvan.
§. 7. Copper.
§. 8. Nickel.
§. 9. Iron.
§. 10. Manganese.
§. 11. Chromium.
§. 12. Titan.
§. 13. tungsten.
§. 14. Molybdenum.
§. 15. Cobalt.
§. 16. Wissmuth.
§. 17. Lead.
§. 18. Tin.
§. 19. Zinc.
§. 20. Spitglare, antimony.
§. 21. Arsenic.
First chapter. Common names.
A. Minerals, fossils.
Understand everything that belongs to the stone kingdom and is brought out of the earth.
dhatu, chakranamen in Sanscrit; -habyuna-khuna-sa-kyi-kamasa in Tibetan; -kong in Chinese; -meaden in Persian; -moedeni, ricas, kani, kaejsur in Arabic; -metchaphrono in Syrian.
Kopalny in Polish (from copak, dig), hence kopalnia the mining, kopalnopismo the mineralogy; i krolestwo rzeczy kopalnych is the stone kingdom; - kow in Czech, also kopanina (the dug, from kopan dig); - kopalnic also rudouina in Windischen (Carniola); - Kopaonik in Slavonian (from kopati dig) - rudarski in Croatian.
mine in Gaelic (also means the pit), hence meinneolas the mineralogy, meinearach the mineralogist; also cloddydd (from clod the stone, cloddio the pit); - maen im Wälschen (is also the stone); - mineralia in medieval Latin; - mineral in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and German; - minerals in Italian; - mineral in Dutch and Danish; —mineralier in Swedish.
μεταλλα in Greek (from meiteal in Gaelic the ore), also ορυκτα, the dug (from which oryktognosia); - ορυκτον, σκαφτον in Modern Greek; - metatta in Latin also fossilia (from ffosi dig in the woods), ffos the pit.
Here preferably, in contrast to stone, the loose, not the solid. In the specific one differentiates: dusty earth (mo in Swedish), dry (mull) and fat or clayey (lera).
ty, tu, thou in Chinese, ngan is dust; —sa in Tibetan; —zi in Japanese; —na in Manchu; nai in Malay; —gasar, gadsar in Mongolian; —tanah in Javanese; —tui in Samoyed; —myg in Ostiak; —ma, mua, muld in Finnish (whence mo, mull in Swedish); - erthe, ierd, irth in Old Finnish; —ma, mag in Vogul; —föld in Magyar.
mira, musa in the Caucasian languages; —mitza, gim in Georgian.
ir, yirda in Tartar; -jer, jerda, er, erez in Turkish; -scher in Kyrgyz; -ser in Chouwassian.
kah, kahi, ertosi in Coptic, uan is dust; —mydr in Ethiopian; —maret, in Abyssinian; —midra, medhro, ge, gi, artho in Syriac; —erez, adamah, pich, gush in Hebrew, aphar is dust ; —Erez, ara, artha in Chaldean, abka is dust; —erz, airdhi, rems, tarb, torab in Arabic; —ard in Maltese; —ard, hagh, jergir in Armenian; —er, ar, erri in Basque; -
γη, γαια in Greek (may be related to ge in Syriac or a related word in Phoenician); - γη, χωρα in Modern Greek.
semla in Russian; —semla in Windisch; —zemlya in Croatia; —zema in Sorbian; —semja in Wendish; —ziemia in Polish; —zeme in Czech and Lithuanian; —zemglja in Bosnian and Ragusan; —sema in Latvian; -glina in Serbian.
tir, daer in Wälischen, pridd is Dammerde, maran is march, set apart from the sea; —ter, tir, daer in Gaelic; —daor in Breton, also ter, which is out of date, but is found in compounds; terra in Latin Italian, Portuguese; -terre in French; -tierra in Spanish.
airtha, eard in Gothic; —erthe, jerd, irth in Old Frisian, mull is dusty earth; —earth in English, dust is dust; —eordhe in Anglo-Saxon, myll is dust; —aert in Flammland; —aard in Dutch, mul is dust; —herda in Old Franconian and Allamannic; —jord, joerd in Icelandic (like jerd in Old Finnish), mold is dust; —jord in Swedish and Danish, mo, muld, mull is dust (like in Finnish ).
pament in Wallachian, prafu is dust; —de, stere in Albanian.
(Compare the article: Kieselstein.)
chi, che, sce, schi, chap in Chinese (pan a large stone, kiang a small hard one, lien, ly-tso a raw one, hung a millstone, king a sounding stone, tchu a red stone); - rdo, to, rdo -ba, kar, gora-mia in Tibetan; -batu, arang, wato in Malay; -watu in Javanese; -ouche, jalo in Tartar-Manchu; -cholon in Kalmuck; -ujarak in Greenlandic; -poinah, jola, hyma in Tungusian; tu, tol in [im] Korean; —itsi in Japanese; —is in Permic; pü, pai, po, pyl, phi, fualla in Samoyed; -guwwen, guvien in Korjäk; -poina in Kurul; -kual in Kamchadal.
kiwi, kü, chiwi in Finnish; —kiwwi in Estonian; —kiw, keu, kewu, py in Ostiakian; —kow, Achtys in Vogul; —kallia in Finnish; —kedke in Lappish; —kowa, kö, keü in Magyar.
kwa, kua, kach in Georgian; —kara, kera, miwweh in Circassian; —kara, gul, hizo, teb, izo in the other Caucasian languages.
tasch, kar in Tartar and Kyrgyz language; —tasch, chas, aeghiar in Turkish, ejjer is hard stone, qaja is rock.
khar, kuar, gadskhar, ljear in Armenian.
onr in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic language according to Champollion; -one, ene, al in Coptic; -ibn in Abyssinian and Ethiopian, kekuh is rock; -ehena, danegaja, baledete in Amharic, mefetche is small stone, marege is rock; - right in Hebrew , keph, zur is rock; —eben, perid, peririn in Chaldean, pesiphas is small stone, tinar, zum is rock; —abhno, kefa, kiph in Syriac; —itsa, hagr, hajar, hygiar, rockhan, daeka, düsta in Arabic, zolaat is smooth stone, narval white stone, lachfat is soft, thin stone, radal, car rock, jebel mountain; -hhagar in Maltese; -adgragr, kitla in Berber and Kabyle; -klugi in Dungul; -emmenick in Tigris ( North Africa).
açman, çila, kalla, prastara, patharo, kascha in Sanscrit, giri, mali is rock; -pathara in Bengali; -sung in Hindu, gara, khara is rock; -galle in Sinhala in Ceylon; -kallou in Malabar; -lochou in Nepalese.
djerera in Pehlvi; - char, khara, pad, sunk in Persian, senkin is stone; senk in Bukharian, - kani in Afghan.
akmen, akmins in Lithuanian (as in Sanscrit); - akmins in Latvian, akmins kalns is rock; --kamen in Russian, Czech, Croatian, Windisch, Illyrian, Bosnian, Slavonian, skala is rock; --kaman in Dalmatian, kars is rock ; —Kam, kammen in Ragusan; —kamien in Polish, kamioka are stone types, orcel, orcla the quarry stone, cale generally the rock under the earth, fliza the river.
arri, arria, harria, arcanta in Basque, arroca is rock, also acha, aitza, arcaitza.
chalitz (whether related to cal in Gaelic?) also gkur, zourre, sourre in Albanian; —piatrè, petra in Wallachian, bolavan is rock.
maen, careg im Wälschen, caregan is a small stone, maenaid stony, maen gwerthfawr a valuable stone, maen melin a milestone, llech a flat, slate stone, craig is rock, carn rock, also cairn, therefore probably kar in Switzerland, cart for rock; —maen, mein (whence mine in French), also lach, lech, crag in Breton, meingle is quarry, smelt rock (whence roche in French); - clach, cal, gal, cled, cloch, bil, balon, baleyn, felyen in Gaelic, cloiche is stony, leac a flat stone, fly, flynt a hard fire-striking stone, cleddiwig is a quarry (carreria in Scottish), carr (hence carriere in French), roc, craig, agaun (like agaunum in Old Gallic) is rock, tur high mountain (hence Tauren in Swiss).
λιθος in Greek (probably related to leac, llech, lach in Celtic, whence also lapis), furthermore λαας; (like the Celtic clach), rarely στια, στιον (similar to Gothic), ψηφος is small stone (like the Chaldean pesiphas), πετρος is rock (like petra in Wallachian); - χαλικι (like in Albanian), also πετρα in Modern Greek; -
peiro in Provençal; —pierre in French, also cailliou (from cal), roche is rock; —piedra in Spanish, also laxa (from lach in Celtic), roca, serra is rock; —pedra in Portuguese, rocha is rock; - Pietra in Italian, rocca is rock.
stain in Gothic; —stein, stieren in Icelandic, rock is rock; —stan in Anglo-Saxon; —sten in Swedish, fjallsten, field is rock (whether maybe from Finnish?); - steen in Danish, klintsteen is rock; —steen in Dutch, rotssteen is rock; —stien in old Frisian; —stain in old German, ullins is hard stone (perhaps related to flynt); - stone in English, rock is rock (in English miners the solid rock means carrack, quarr, probably from car in Celtic).
D. jewel, gemstone, gem.
chendju, vou-fou, tche-kü in Chinese; po, pou a red gemstone; chao, chao-pao, chao-yo, kieou a beautiful gemstone; mo, lo, min, jen, yng, tsin, tse, yao a stone, similar to precious stones; fou, a stone worse than a gem; hiay a black gem; ly, lieou a transparent gemstone; tsching, vou, tou, lang gemstones similar to pearls; yeou, ngo, ky, kouen white gemstones; yang, hia flesh colored; nao, mano white with black veins; py blue and transparent; men, fang, hiang rothe gemstones; —rdo-rye-badsa, rina-po-ehhe, nora-pu in Tibetan, also muddi and mani (as in Sanscrit); - kou, fiaham, koufiahan in Tartar Manchu.
mani, prastara in Sanscrit, also upala, opala (related to opal); - gahana in Bengal, also dschouhara (as in Persian), dschouhari is a jeweler; - manikan in Malay.
kallis kiwwi in Estonian; —draga kö, gyongy in Magyar; —agn, markarid in Armenian.
aann, anm in the Egyptian hieroglyphic language according to Champollion; -anamei, one-emme, oni, emmei, bnooni in Coptic; -enku, baheri in Ethiopian; -ebem jekarah in Hebrew; puch is jewelry, migdanoth, peninin, precious goods, treasures; —juhadin, joharin, gmar, aban, taba in Chaldean; —dabho, margenijath in Syrian.
giauher, gewher, jöhar, gewahir, javakit, farid in Arabic; hajara muthammana in the vulgar language; giohari, giauhari, geuheri the jeweler (also used in Turkish and Persian), nadhm aldschanaber, nadham aldorara, nethraldorrt is jewelry, a series of jewels; —gavhar in Maltese; —kimetlii tasch, eska, gieuher, dgiauler, dschewahir in Turkish; —Gawher in Bulgarian; —gioahr in Kurdish; —kyimelii tus, ghiauher, gewher, dschewher in Persian; pure is jewelry.
dragnzjennoi came in Russian; —drahy came in Czech, Slovak, Illyrian; —drogi kamien in Polish; —dragi Kameni in Windisch, also shlaten-Kamen; —dahrgs axmins in Latvian; —akmenelis brungus in Lithuanian.
bertaria, bertistea in Basque (from bert beautiful and ar stone); - pietra cinstita, pietri scumpe in Wallachian, olor is gem; - gourre te pa tsmouare in Albanian.
gem, glain, maen gwerthfawr (valuable stone), also ceinion, ereiries (jewel) im Wälschen, gemydd is a jeweler, also ceinionydd; —gem, geam, cloch-buaidh im Gälschen, also uige (jewel), usgar, seud, seudraid ; gemmyd, seudair, seudachan is a jeweler; —gowdy in Scottish. γεμμα, τριγληνα in Greek; —ιθαρι, πετραδι, ατμητη πετρα in modern Greek; —gemma in Latin; —jivia in medieval Latin the jewel (from uige in Gaelic); - gemme in Italian, also gioja, giojelliere the jewelers ; —Gemme, pierre pretieuse in French; —joyau is jewel, joaillier is the jeweler; —gems in English; jewell the jewel, jeweller the jeweler, gimma, stan searo in Anglo-Saxon; -gimstiere, edalstiere in Icelandic; -gimstein, aedelsteen in Swedish; -juwel is jewel; -edelsteen, jewel in Dutch; -piedra pretiosa in Spanish, joyel is jewel ; joyelero the jeweler, pedras pretiosas in Portuguese.
Second chapter. Gem and related things.
§. 1. Diamond.
It is the hardest stone, has the most fire (the highest shine), comes from India and Brazil, is mainly used for jewelry, for grinding powder, for cutting glass, etc. To increase the fire, it is usually grinded and differentiated according to the type of cut (the shape that emerged from the grinding): diamonds (where many rows of regular facets are so that the play of colors of the shine is most beautiful), Rosettes, table stones, etc. The diamonds are mostly water-white or gray, but there are also colored ones, but the jeweler usually assigns other names to them. You have a) water-white or gray diamonds, b) green, which jewelers usually call oriental emeralds, c) red, d) yellow, e) blue, f) black.
Magnetic iron stone is often found in the gem laundries, which has the same size and crystal shape as the diamond, and which is often very similar to black diamonds, so it may happen that in many, especially oriental languages (including Latin), diamond and magnetic iron stone are identical or similar names.
kin-kang-chy, also pa-tche-lo in Chinese; -
wadjira in Mongolian; —wadjra, rdo-rye-pha-lama, also rdo-rye-badsa (which also means scepter, thunderbolt, gem) in Tibetan; —intam, itam in Malay; —itam in Malagar.
elmas, mas in Turkish, kybrys elmasi is the yellow diamond; —almas in Kurdish; —almas, mas, elmas, hegerüs sejatjum in Arabic; Taifaschi notes in his mineralogy: that the almas always appear in equiangular shapes and that its fragments are stiff triangular; He does not list types, but with the emerald-like stones he mentions the elmazet (which will be the plural of elmas) as the hardness and weight of the diamond. — him admas in Ethiopian; —odomos in Syrian, adamusojo is diamond-like ; —Sabholon, sampirinon, samprin in Chaldean.
adamand in Armenian, also agn d.i. Gemstone; andamnant is magnetic iron stone; —giement, gyemant, dijemanth in Magyar.
hira in Sanscrit, also hiraka, wadjra, wadshra; furthermore açira (meaning indestructible), abhedja (cannot be split up), wararaka (excellent crystal), lohadshit (conqueror of metal), sutshimukha (needle mouth), a bad species is called rajapatta, rajapartta; —hira, hiraka in Bengal; —iraa, iri, itas im Hindu; ira bey the Indian diamond graves. In the diamond mines of India, especially in Sumbhulpuru, where most of the diamonds are mined, they are divided according to their quality into 4 classes, which have the same names as the Hindu sets, a) bramin, brahma, the water-white, b) chetter , chetra, the yellow, c) wassier, vysca, the not light, d) chadrie or sudra, the gray; In some areas a distinction is made between: a) montichul the very pure, b) mank, the greenish, c) patanna, the reddish, d) bunsput, the dark-colored. — The largest diamond is the kohi-nur, that is, mountain of light, in possession of Ranjet Singh in Lahore; it has the size and shape of a hen's egg, is pure, white and of extraordinary fire.
mas, almas in Persian; a distinction is made between: a) the water-white, b) the pharaonic, c) the olive-colored, d) the black, e) the fire-colored, f) the red, g) the green.
arturguina, diamantea in Basque.
almase, alsmas in Russian; —dyament in Polish, paragon is a big diamond; —dyamant in Czech; —djemant in Carnian; —diamant in Slovak and Illyrian; —gyemant, gemant in Croatian; —deemants in Latvian; —temanti kiwwi in Esthnian.
diamantu in Wallachian; -diamant in Albanian; -diamant in Breton; -adamant, daoimean, also leug chruaidh riomback in Gaelic; -αδαμας in Greek, the name may be borrowed from the Armenians, perhaps by the Celtic Pelasgians, by which the Gemstone trade is mediated; —in the oldest time the hardest steel was called αδαμαντινος steels, αδαμαντος indomitable, what may be borrowed from diamond; —διαμαντε in modern Greek; —adamas indicus of the Romans; the other species of the genus adamas belong to the magnetic iron stone; androdamus is arsenic pebbles, which have almost the same crystal form; —diamantes, also amas in medieval Latin.
demant in Icelandic and Dutch (here also divelsten); - adamant in Alt-Hochteutschen (also demuth); - diamant in Plattteutschen, Danish, Swedish; diamond in English; aymant in Old French; Diamond in French (the large ones are called paragones, the natural octahedra are pointes natives, the brilliant ones: brillants (to shine from briller), such grinding is more brilliant); - diamante in Spanish (iman is magnetic iron stone); diamante, dimao in Portuguese (naiffos are the natural octahedra); diamante in Italian.
latschopar in the gypsy language.
§. 2. Pearls.
Although the pearls from the pearl oyster are a product of the animal kingdom, they belong with the precious stones to the jewels and have been technically connected with them since the earliest times, which is why it is advisable to grant them a place here. The pearls come mainly from the Indian seas; the largest are called paragon pearls, the unequal barogues, the very small number pearls in Spanish aljofar and rostrillo.
ty, ty-ly, tchu, tchin-tchu in Chinese, ky is the round one; —nitchoouhe in Manchu, tana is a special kind; —mouti in Tibetan.
draga-gyöngy in Magyar.
indgii, indshi, indschu, also murvarid in Turkish.
moravarid, also lulu, lauali, tovamijjat, saffanat, chaudat, dschauhar, dschauharon in Arabic; a distinction is made between: a) dorr, dorat, dart, large pearls; b) laular small pearls, dschomann, gioman pierced; c) charidat, kharida impervious pearls; laal is the seller of pearls; machschalab is a stone similar to pearls.
dar in Hebrew (similar to major in Persian) also gabisch; -bojel, bejeno, also margonitho in Syrian; -margal, maregale in Chaldean; -baherej, bahario in Ethiopian (from the location bahhrain in the Persian Gulf); - djohar in Sscaucian (North Africa); - anamei in Coptic (actually jewel).
markarid in Armenian.
Manschara, induradna in Sanscrit, also mani (meaning spotless, which also means precious stone), mandarita (meaning the pure, where markarid, margarita etc. may come from) and ratna (meaning popular); - moti in Hindu (cheripo, changuo is the Pearl shell); - mukta in Bengali; --multu in Malagan.
pill, palle in the Indian province of Tennasserim.
kasperz in Pehlvi; -merwarid, marvarid in Persian, also goher and jek-daneh (i.e. the only grain from which the Latin unio can have originated through translation). A distinction is made between: a) major, large pearls (as in Arabic), [b)] lulu, small pearls (as in Arabic); lului is the name of the pearl seller; —markreitas in Gothic.
margarita, merjeritarju in Wallachian; —margaritar in Albanian; —myrierid, myrieriden in Wälschen; —perlen in Breton; —pearl, neamhnaid, neamhuinn, neonaid in Gaelic; —eistr in Breton, oisier in Gaelic is the pearl oyster.
μαργαριτης (probably from Albanian and Armenian) in Greek, also μαργαρις, μαργελλιον, μαργηλις (probably from Chaldean); μαργαριταρι in Modern Greek; χαλαζα in medieval Greek; —margarita in Latin, also unio (perhaps translated from Persian), lapis erythreus, lapis indicus.
perla, shemchuschina in Russian; —pereleczka, perla in Polish; —perlicka, perla in Czech; —parlka, parla in Sorbian; -pehrle in Latvian; -parla in Wendish; -pirel in Krainschen; -perl, biser in Windischen; - biser in Bosnian and Ragusan; —biszer, also gyungu in Croatian and Dalmatian; —pehrlit in Estonian.
berille, berala, perala, marigrozz, merigricz in Alt-Hochteutschen; -mergriez in Mittel-Hochteutschen; -merigriota in Old-Saxon; -meregreot, pearl in Anglo-Saxon (probably from the Wälschen); - berel in Lower-Saxon; -perla in Icelandic; —pärla in Swedish and Danish; —pearl, perel, parel in Dutch; —perla in Italian and Spanish, here also margarita; aljofar are the little pearls; pearl in French, formerly also bacée, baceys; —perlyn in Walloon; —pearl in English; —perola, aliosar in Portuguese.
Mother-of-pearl, the shell of some conchylia, which is used for jewelry.
kaupang in Malay (actually the pearl oyster); - sedef in Turkish; - sadaf in Arabic; - dar in Hebrew.
ζαμυψ, ζαμβοξ in Medieval Greek; —κογλυλη in Modern Greek; —lasztura in Croatian; —perlowa malka in Czech; —perlenova matiza, also bisesski saklopnjak in Windisch; —perlumodir in Icelandic; —perlemor in Dutch, —Swedish, nacre de perle in French; —nacar de perlas in Spanish; —madreperla in Italian; —mother of pearl in English.
§. 3. Rothe gems and related stones.
A. Our mineralogical genus.
Corundum (Telesie, Corindon) with the noble types Rubin (red), Sapphir (blue), as well as the base types Demantspath and Smirgel.
a. Corundum or sapphir in general.
The jeweler differentiates, as completely different gemstones, according to the colors: 1) ruby (light red), 2) balais or ruby balais (pale red), 3) oriental topaz (yellow), 4) oriental emerald (green), 5) sapphire ( beautiful blue), 6) lynx sapphire (dark blue), 7) water sapphire (light blue and water light), 8) star sapphire (with a star-like glow); But in recent times it has been established that mineralogically all these precious stones are only species of one genus, have the same crystal form, hardness, weight, and chemical constituents, and that these are still joined as less noble species: partly the Indian Demantspath, partly the granular emerald which are widely used as the hardest abrasive powders. The mineral genus has different colors, of which red and blue are the most common, the most valued.
In the Orient, all these differently colored stones have been understood since ancient times in one large genus with the name Jakut, the Hyacinthos of the Greeks; Hence our name Hyacinth, which we have transferred to a completely different mineral genus (to the yellow-red zircon), and it would be desirable that the name Hyacinth would get its old correct meaning back scientifically, which denotes the genus that we now call corundum . The Arab mineralogist Taifasachi (who lived in the 13th century, but will have relied on older mineralogies) cites the main characteristic of Yakut: that he scratches all other stones with the exception of diamonds, is only scratched by diamonds and specifically heavier than the other gems.
Yakut in Malay; Jakut and Joacht in Turkish; one differentiates: a) kyzyl, the red one; b) giök, the blue one; c) ak, the white one; d) sary, the yellow. — Joachet in Tartar; —Jakut in Arabic, also elhum-muri [or: elhummuri], el giohar (the gem), called el asgiad; a distinction was made here: a) achmaru and kyrmyzy, the red one; b) azfaru, the yellow one; c) samandschunijj or esmanagiuni, also called sary and asrak, the black and blue; d) the blue one; e) abjadu, the white or water-white; —Jakent in Abyssinian, where a distinction is made: kajeh, the red, tzalin, the blue; —Jakudno, aikantum in Syriac; —Dijakint in Chaldean (the jarukt, jarok, jarket is probably incorrectly with translated by topazius, should belong here or to yellow corundum); - najude in Amharic could belong here; - Jakut, Yaachet, Yankot in Persian; here one differentiates: a) the red (ruby); b) the yellow one (topaz from our jewelers); c) the dark (lynx sapphire); d) the white (water sapphire), e) the green (emerald of our jewelers), f) the blue and smoke colored (sapphire); furthermore the aschemi naturally crystallized and the mensu or cut; —Jakut in Kurdish, with: keli the red and shin the blue.
Jakinth in Armenian; Hiatzinthos in Magyar; -
Yachante, Jachont in Russian; —Jacinth in Illyrian.
ὑακινθος , hyacinthus in Greek and Latin, meant the species mentioned above; a distinction was made: a) roseus, the red, b) thalassites, the green, c) nativus (probably the light of water), d) channiaeus and perileucos (with a dark core); this is where the granatus, actually hyacinthus granatus, also belong.
ὑακινθος in modern Greek.
Jachant, Jacint in Alt-Hochteutschen.
The gemstones belonging here are best known in India, but I cannot find any such generic generic name. In sanskrit the garud is a precious gem, partly blue and partly green; the name has a resemblance to Jakut, but also to zmerud (emerald), and Wilson translates it as emerald; Opala in Sanskrit actually means precious stone in general, but the name can also be used preferably for our corundum, because a distinction was made between: conitopola, the red, patalopala, the pale, nilopala, the blue.
In Tibetan I don't find a special name for the genre in general; it is possible that mya belonged here, inya mea the red, mya raena phyina the blue corundum.
b. Our ruby.
Our jewelers ruby, i.e. our noble, red corundum or sapphire of the mineralogists is the red yakut of the Orientals. Variations can be distinguished: rose-carmine-koschenille-carmine-red, furthermore dark-colored and pale, which the latter are also called balais, ruby balais, rubicell, rubacel, rubasse; the jewelers also call the koschenille or dawn-red variation hyacinthe or vermeille orientale, but the bluish one amethyste orientale; the half red, half blue is called sapphir rubis.
The name ruby does not occur in antiquity and the Orient; the name rubisus, rubies, robinus was not found until the Middle Ages (around 1300); where it comes from is doubtful, whether from the Persian rutbi, which was a kind of benefch (see these), or from the red color (ruber in Latin, rudhir in Sanscrit, rhudd in Celtic, and similar in most languages). The name balais, Rubinbalais comes from the Arabs' balaschsch (s. Balchasch), who will have been our spinel.
Po-ma-lo-kia in Chinese; The red gemstones are generally called moey.
manikja in Sanscrit, also padmaraga (di lotus-colored, rose-red), mahamulga (precious stone), patalopala (pale red gemstone), arunopala (dark red), conitopala (rother), lohito (the red), conaratna, tanariratna (sun gemstone), kuruwilla kuruwilwa, kuruwinda, lakshmipusha; Wilson translates all of these — mostly poetic — names in his dictionary as ruby, but this may also include other red gemstones which, with names beginning with kuru, are reminiscent of corundum, korundun in India.
In the Tibetan dictionary of Körös I do not find a name for ruby, although one must know the stone very well; perhaps mani (gemstone) belongs here, because of the connection with manik, also mya-mena-phyena a red gemstone.
manik, manika, also tokes in Hindu; -manika, manikya, also malia mülya (di of high value), padmaraga, padmaragamani in Bengali; -manikan, padma, padam in Malay; -pata-mra in Malabar, also kyaokoi (di Rothstein) and elinges chogeppi; —lankaratte in Ceylonese.
Jakut der rothe in Persian, with the changes: a) wiridi, the rose-colored, b) erghiwani, the purple-colored; c) behremani, behremen, behreman, the yellow-red, and diess is now the common name in Persian for ruby in common life; - d) lami, the flesh-colored, e) remani, the pomegranate-colored; f) sumaki, the porphyry red (sumaki is now also used in Arabic, Persian and Turkish to refer to garnet and similarly colored stones).
Jakut kyzil (der rothe) and kyruizigi in Turkish, also aghdagi (zumbel is also translated as hyacinthus orientalis); - Jakut keli in Kurdish; - Jakut achmara or kyrmyzi in Arabic, with the modifications: a) vardijj, rosenroth, b) chamrijj , purple, c) achmaru deep red, d) bahraman, of the most beautiful red; Jakent kajeh in Abyssinian.
kachale in Chaldean (reminiscent of kajeh in Abyssinian), also samkan, simuka, simukta is probably related to sumaki in Persian.
aikantum, in Syriac; -najude in Amharic.
Jakinth, also gaboudai in Armenian; —ὑακινθος ῥοσιος in Greek; —ὑακινθος, also ῥουπινε in modern Greek; —hyacinthus roseus of the Romans, also probably hyancinthus granatus (i.e. the granular, probably because of its occurrence in grains); the lichnis, lichnitis (λιχνιταριον in the Middle Ages) belongs here or to our Hyacinth (see zircon); - Jacinth, the burning (i.e. bright red) in old German, from which one differentiates the pale.
Jachont krasnoi (from krasni roth) in Russian, also lal and vostotschoi roubine; —zargelgenak in Croatian, czarlyenak in Ragusan; —rubin in Polish, Czech, Windischen.
rhuddem (from rhud roth and gem Edelstein) in Wälischen; -ruiteachan in Gaelic; -rubint in Magyar; -rubi in Spanish; -ruby in English; -rubin in German, Danish, Swedish; -rubis in French; -rubino in Italian ; —Robyn in Dutch; —rubi, ruby in Portuguese; —a distinction is made here between the pale balais and the fiery red espinel.
c. Our sapphir.
Our sapphire or the blue noble corundum, only different from the ruby in color, is the blue yakut of the Orientals, especially in the Semitic languages. We differentiate between the following variations: berlin, narrow, indig, glaze, lavender blue and blackish blue, which the latter is also called lynx sapphire. The jewelers also understand other blue, similar stones under this name, especially the peliom and black-blue spinel (zeilanite or pleonast). Some stones have 2 or 3 colors, blue, red and white.
In modern languages the blue Yakut is called Sapphir; The name comes from ancient times, from sappir, sappheiros, with which our blue glaze stone was designated (see this one), from which it was erroneously borrowed during the development of modern mineralogy. It would be desirable if the word, according to its current meaning, could be suppressed in book language.
nila in Sanscrit (i.e. the blue), also nilamana (blue gem), nilopala (blue gem), indranila (the most beautiful blue) and litirana; probably also mahanila (the big blue), rajanila (royal blue) and marakanta (which are mistakenly translated as emerald, which is green); - nilamani, nilakanta in Bengali; nila candi in Hindu is half blue, half red; —nilam, batu nilam in Malay; —nila, nilam, nilaralmak in Malabar; nila candi is half red, half blue; —nile in Ceylon; —idnu nila in Tibetan, can belong here; podia is said to be the name of the sapphir in Hindu after the localities.
Yakut the blue in Persian, with the changes: a) askan, the light blue, b) ladschwerdi, the glaze blue, c) nili, the indig blue, which name apparently comes from India; —Jakut shin (the sky-colored) in Kurdish; —Jakut asungan (the sky blue) in Turkish, also jak, giok; the seljan can also belong here; —Jakut samandschunijj in Arabic, with the modifications: a) asraku, the light and sky blue, b) asuradijj, the glaze blue; c) the indigo blue, d) chochlijj, the darker one, e) siftijj, the blackish one, who is darker than isatis d.i. Woad.
Schabsis in Chaldean is translated as Sapphirus; —schaphuegna in Armenian, also Sapphira, perhaps borrowed from the modern languages; —Jachont sinii, also wischnewii in Russian.
hyacinthos of the Greeks and Romans, with the amendments: θαλασσιτης the sea-colored; περιλευκος (probably with a dark core, or white and blue); also granatus venetus, the blue one. The nilion, mentioned by Pliny 37, 35, whose name is probably of Indian origin, probably also belongs here.
Samfiru in Wallachian, sapeir in Gaelic, zafir in Magyar, are probably of more recent origin; - sapphire telesie, Corindonhyalin in French, sapphire in English; sapphir in Danish; saffir in Dutch; zafir, zafiro in Spanish; saphira in Portuguese; zaffiro in Italian; zafir also modralek in Czech; szafir in Polish; safir in the Windischen.
d. The green corundum or sapphire.
It is found less often than the species mentioned, mostly of leek or grass-green color, is called by jewelers mostly oriental emerald, emeraude orientale, in English oriental emerald; With a greenish blue color it is usually called aigemarine orientale, also called corindon brillin, with a more light green color it is called peridot orientale.
Yakut the green in Persian, probably similarly in the Semitic languages.
padje-padian in Ceylon and Malay.
In Sanscrit the following are found as green stones: herimanni (green gemstone), haritasma (green stone), which are translated as esmerald or emerald, therefore will be green gemstones, but India has no emeralds; Such things came to Asia from Egypt, but whether these are mentioned in Sanskrit remains doubtful; It is possible that this name meant our green corundum.
e. The yellow corundum or sapphire.
It is lemon-, joquille-, and straw-yellow in color, not as common as the red, but is sometimes found in larger pieces than this, and is sometimes half yellow and half blue. The jewelers know it under the name of oriental topaz, topaze oriental.
Yakut the yellow in Persian with the changes: a) mischmischi the apricot-colored, b) narendschi the lemon-colored, c) kahi the straw-colored; - Jakut sari in Turkish, which is mostly translated as topaz; - Jakut azfaru (the yellow) in Arabic, with the amendments: a) rakik, b) khalukijj, c) jollaharijj the citron-colored; d) el sanuri and el zeiti were the worst varieties of light yellow and bluish color; —Jarukt, jarok, jaroka in Chaldean, translated as topazius, will belong here, at least to the genus jakut; but the birselin, also translated as topazius, is probably beryl.
puresjeragen and manikang kuning in Malay, translated as topaz, is probably yellow ruby or corundum.
pusperagon in Ceylon, translated as topaz, will also belong here.
Yellow gemstones appear in Sanscrit:
pita (yellow), pita sara (yellow essence), pitaspatika (yellow crystal), pitasman (yellow stone), pitamana (yellow gemstone), guratna and gometaka translated as topaz. But India has no topazes at all; the yellow Brazilian and Saxon topazes could not have been known; the Siberian topazes that may have been known are more green than yellow. The yellow gemstones mentioned cannot belong to the mineral genus Topaz, they must have been yellow sapphire (ruby), perhaps also to the part of the river path, to which the topazion of the ancients belonged; - pitaçna and gomedaka in Bengali, also translated as topaz, belong to the mentioned Sanscrit names; —pitdah in Hebrew, translated as topazion, has, in the tone of the name, perfect resemblance to pita in Sanscrit and will have been the same stone.
f. The water sapphire.
Is a water-white corundum or sapphire; sapphir blanc in French, white sapphir in English.
Yakut abjadu in Arabic, with the types: a) mahijj, very clear water with a lot of fire, b) dsichr, the hard one, with less radiation, which is at a low price.
Jachont scheltoi in Russian.
G. The star sapphire.
It is a bluish sapphire that is polished and plays on the inside with a mostly milk-white, six-pointed star that moves in all directions. The jewelers know the stone as sapphir étoilé, arterié, sunstone, star stone. Many pieces have only a colored, iridescent sheen, especially on the convex polished surface; this is the korindon girasole, girasole sapphire and girasole of the Italians.  In Russian and Polish it is called kamin gwiazdzisti.
I have not been able to find a special name for it in the oriental languages; but one seldom grinds the sapphire, even in the Orient. In Persian a peacock-colored yakut is mentioned, which will belong here; the Arabs may have understood it as ainol hur cat's eye.
In the Romans, the garamantites or the male sandaresus was an Indian hard gem, with internal stars, perhaps our star sapphire (the female was a star coral), to which astrios (unlike asteria our cat's eye), who was accompanied by an Indian stone, must have also belonged Stars was; the beli oculus with a pupil-like note, which was consecrated to the highest god in Assyria, can belong here or to the cat's eye, perhaps also the solis gemma and ceraunia.
H. Our diamond spar [diamond spath].
The diamond spar or common corundum is a less noble species of this genus, crystalline, opaque, of impure bad colors, is therefore not used as a gemstone, but because of its great hardness, it is the most important grinding powder for gemstones, since the oldest in and outside India used. It is found quite frequently in India, as a mixture of granite (especially in the Ghat Mountains), such as not far from Seringapatan, in Salem and other regions, also frequently in China. The Chinese used to be called diamond spar, the Indian corundum, the two are not essentially different. Grenville in England made the stone better known in 1784, named it corundum (after the Indian name) and already indicated its correct place in the system, which Klaproth's analysis confirmed. The Chinese corundum was made by Dr. Lind first known, called him adamantine spar (hence Spath adamantine, diamond spar).
pou-sa in Chinese (is actually the corundum powder).
korundum, koorum in India, also korundum galla (i.e. zimm stone). Korundon sane is the name of the Tamulen in East India, a grinding wheel made of corundum and resin, which they use a lot. In Madras the English call the stone grindingspar d.i. Abrasive spar.
The name of the stone in the Sanscrit has not yet been determined because, as far as I know, the word corundum, or an expression for it, does not appear in the dictionaries. The stone Caniprija is translated as emerald or sapphir and can belong here. The gemstone names kuruwilwa, kuruwinda may be related to korundum.
Senbade in Persian, almost as hard as diamond, will be corundum; a distinction is made between two variations: a) reddish, b) bluish; —sumpara in Turkish; —zembara in Kurdish; —sambadasch in Arabic, also sunbadadsch, sunbadensch, sümpadeg, sübade, samur, semiris (from where smirgel in modern languages) was the Stone for grinding the hardest gemstones.
samphurgana, samaphuregana, shamira, shamir in Chaldean; —shamir in Hebrew; —semiris in Syrian; —σμιρις λιθος in Greek, which the stone cutters (dactylioglyphi) used for grinding.
Arena indica and aethiopica of the Romans will have been corundum powder; this is where the brown indica of Pliny 37. 16 is mentioned, probably also the chalazias, probably an Indian or Semitic word.
gyemant kovats in Magyar; —almasnoi shpat in Russian; —spath adamantine, corindon harmophane in French; —spatho adamantino in Italian; —espato adamantine in Spanish; —common corundum in English.
i. Our emery.
From a mineralogical point of view, by emery we mean only the grainy, bluish base corundum, which is broken into whole rock masses, which has the hardness of the other species of this genus and is used in Europe as a hard abrasive powder. This does not seem to occur in Asia, so it is not known with certainty at least at the moment, which is why the Orientals will not know it. We obtain it primarily from the Greek island of Naxos (where it forms corridors in the mica slate mountains near Calamitzia), it can also be found in Saxony and at several other points in Europe. The older mineralogists added emerald to ores, mostly to iron, because of its heaviness; it was not until 1791 that Werner gave him his proper place. In common life, almost every abrasive powder is referred to by the name emery and all different substances are given this name.
The hard type of the lapis ostracites of the Romans, which served to cut the gems, and the blue cadmites may have belonged here; - the naxium of the Romans did not come from the island of Naxos, but from the city of Naxia on the island of Creta, was used for grinding of marble and was a powdered, whipped slate.
clach-smior in Gaelic; —σμεριλιον in modern Greek; —naschdak, naidach in Russian; —szmergiel, szinergiel in Polish; —shelesnast came in Windischen; —smergel in [in] Magyar; —emeril corindon granulaere in [in] French; - esmeril in Spanish and Portuguese; —emery in English; —smeriglio in Italian; —amaril, smergel in Dutch, Danish, Swedish.
B. The precious stone genera of the oriental writers, related to the yakut or corundum, which we do not yet know how to interpret with certainty.
a. The laal, balchasch, balax, balais.
The laal , also le-el in Persian, is a very hard gemstone with the luster of Yakut and a large suite of colors, because one differentiates: 1) the red laal with the following modifications: a) geschdimegi particularly graceful and shiny; b) piasegi from the village of Piaseg; c) temeri the date-like; d) lami the flesh-like dark red; e) anabi the dove-like; f) bakami of fernambuckrothe; g) edrisi the stone of Enoch; h) ekheb the dark; 2) the yellow laal; 3) the purple laal; 4) the green laal, similar to the emerald, sometimes half green and half red; - according to Niebuhr, laal in Arabic is a fine light red gemstone; - laal, lä'l in Turkish is a pale red gem, but is now in Constantinople this name is rarely used; Our spinel is supposed to be laal in Russian.
The laal does not appear in the Arabic mineralogy of Taifaschi, but the balchasch, of which it is said that it is similar to the yakut, but not so perfect and fire-resistant. It comes from Balkhalcian in Asia, is partly red, then called el abrak (scorpion), partly green, partly yellow. In terms of color, the stone resembles the Jakut, but not in terms of fire, beautiful water, and the beauty of color; but beautiful red stones of the kind are almost of the same value as the jakut.
The balchasch or balachsch, which latter name occurs more often in the Arabic literature, has as modifications:
a) balch. achmaru, red in color, also called abrak;
b) balch. azfaru, who is yellow, pale, even blackish, also resembles pale banfasch;
c) balch. acdaru of green color, resembling the sabardschad.
European writers also give some information about the place where these stones were found; the Venetian Marco Polo (in the 13th century) says: in Balachschian or Badakschan the precious stones, which are called Balassi, are very beautiful and of great value, they are dug in the high mountains (on the border of the Tartarey), but There is only one mountain, called Sikinen, in which the king has pits made and mines. Nobody is allowed to mine these stones with the death penalty unless he has special permission to do so. Strangers are given such stones by the king, but they are not allowed to buy or export them without permission. There are also pits for glaze stone, gold, and silver.
John Wood, in his narrative of a journey to the source of the river Oxus, by the route of the Indus, Kabul and Badakshan 1841, is one of the very few Europeans who have visited the high mountain region of Badakshan; he says here: the ruby pits are 20 English miles from Ishkashm in the district of Gharam, which means caves or mines, on the right bank of the Oxus, and the entrance is said to be 1200 'above the level of the river. The type of mountain should consist of sandstone or limestone and be very easy to work with. Since Badakshan has been in the hands of Prince Kunduz, the mines have not been worked, because he, embittered by their low yield, led the residents of the district, around 500 families, to Kundus, where he sold them as slaves.
So while these gemstones are no longer obtained from here in modern times, they will have been very common and widespread in older times.
The balchasch or balachsch of the Arab mineralogist Taifaschi, which is not in the Persian mineralogy of Ben Manssur, and the laal of the latter, which is missing in the former, undoubtedly belong to the same mineral genus, only the Persian name comes from the color, the Arabic from Location taken from; the stone did not belong to the genus jakut (ruby), but was closest to it and did not come from India. Since the Balachsch pits are no longer in operation, it will be difficult to determine mineralogically the gemstone with complete certainty, but it will either have been our spinel, or more likely our zircon (see this), which was also the ruby is close, but is less beautiful and noble.
The name laal has not passed into the modern languages, but the balchasch or balasch, from which balais, ruby balais were formed, with which the jewelers designate the red spinel and generally ruby-like, but smaller gemstones.
Πελαζος, εμπαλασιος in Medieval Greek; —balax, balagius, balascius, balassius, balascus, palacius in Medieval Latin; —balax in Spanish, is the spinel and pale ruby; Balais in Portuguese as well; --balais, rubin balais in French, - ballas rubin in Dutch; --ballaz rubin in Swedish; --balass rubin in English; --ballasch in Russian; --balas in Czech.
b. The benefsch and banfasch.
gul in Persian  is similar to the jakut, but more purple, is found with the laal, has 4 types: a) madai, hardly distinguishable from the red jakut (ruby); b) rutbi (garlic), where our word ruby can come from; c) benefchi (black red?); d) itaseth of bright yellow color (translated as hammer);
banfasch, benfesc in Arabic has 4 types: a) madsinijj, madini (i.e. worse than the jakut), also sciams and rateb, pale red, beautifully colored, transparent, the most beautiful type; b) mortib, mortibon, of dark, not beautiful red; c) banafsadijj, nice blue with a little red; d) isbadschat, esbadet, essabade, somewhat yellowish, very similar to balkhash.
These species in Persian and Arabic correspond to one another in such a way that there is no doubt that cooch and banfasch are one and the same gem, generally red in color.
This stone is determined partly as amethyst and partly as garnet, but both are likely to be erroneous. What is said about the stone seems to me to fit only on our spinel.
After a message I received from Dr. Röhrig, at that time in Constantinople, the jewelers there know the stone benefsch as a red noble, but it does not matter whether it belongs to the Hyacinth or to the spinel.
c. The badschadi, basadi and madidsch in Arabic, the bidschade, badensch, madensch in Persian.
bidschade in Persian is a red Indian gemstone that only gains shine and transparency through the cut (hence probably carbuncle, i.e. garnet in medieval Greek πεζεπος, πεζεποτα); -
betschate in Amharic is a precious stone that is not described in more detail, but is likely to be the same.
Badensch in Persian, also madensch and madebensch, is very similar to the bischade, but lighter, the red plays more in the black; the stone only gets glossy when it is ground deeply from below.
Badschadi, basadi, baradi in Arabic, where the madisch also belongs, of a very dark red color, which is less valued than the other types of baschadi, because it has to be hollowed out deeply below if it is to show fire. Taifaschi says: the basadi or bagiadi, which comes from the island of Ceylon, is of a red color with violet blue or peacock blue, of beautiful water and fire; the less beautiful ones have to be ground hollow to shine. It also has the property that, when rubbed against hair, it attracts light bodies (that is, it is electric); - bidschadet, bigiad, bigiade in Turkish.
I do not find any similar names in the oriental literature, nor have they passed over into the modern languages; Hammer von Purgstall (in his translation by Ben Manssur) thinks that our word garnet comes from bidschade, but one should derive it more naturally from granatus.
The strong electrical property which Taifaschi mentions only applies to our tourmaline, which is often red, but also colored differently. Of all red gemstones, it is the noble garnet, especially the Ceylonese, which is hollowed out at the bottom or, as we say, cut en cabouchon to increase the shine, to make it more transparent, which should indicate that the bidschade ours noble garnet or almandine, to which the similarly colored tourmaline was probably included.
d. The dungeon.
Kerkend in Persian is a Yakut-like gemstone of dark red color, which Taifaschi does not mention in his Arabic mineralogy, although very similar names appear in several Semitic and other oriental languages.
karkand, karkenad in Arabic (translated with gemma similis rubino), also karkedno karkodno (translated with carchedonia gemma); - karkedno in Syriac and kokkenen (translated with calcedonia gemma, onyx) and kelidon (chalcedonius), kanire, kincire, kancerinum (with lygurios translated); - karkeden in Ethiopian (carchedonius carbunculus), also karkadam and ke'kedon (blutrother calcedonius); - kankire in Chaldean, also kankine, kankerin, kadkedan, (all translated with lapis pretiosus), kadkodin; - kadkor, cadcodin in Hebrew (mostly translated as carchedonius, chalcedonius), karchuchum, carcheduchim; -karkehan in Armenian (translated by carbuncle), probably not different from gargékan; -karketana in Tibetan, also ketaka, kekeru has a name similarity, but is supposed to be Gemstones of white color.
We know nothing of this stone except that it will be related to the red Yakut; a stone similar to this is our zircon, which is called cerkon, gargum in Ceylon, cerkars in India, and therefore has a certain resemblance to its name. If one should venture a conjecture, one could probably relate the stones mentioned to our zircon.
The Greek and Roman writers mention the καρχηδονα, carchedon, as related to carbunculus (garnet), or kind of the same, and this name seems to be more closely related to the Semitic names mentioned than to Carthage. According to Plin. 37. 30. Carchedonius is said to attract chaff, but much weaker than Ionia; the zircon becomes electric through rubbing, and could therefore also attract light bodies.
e. The Kerkin
kerkin is in Persian after Ben Manssur a black and red gemstone transparent in the sun, which is neither mentioned by Taifaschi nor otherwise, about whose difference from kerkend no conjecture can be made.
f. The Kuser.
According to Ben Manssur, kuser is a gemstone in Persian that has all the colors of the different types of Yakut (i.e. red, blue, green, yellow, white). I have not been able to find this or a similar name in any other language.
Only our tourmaline has such a comprehensive color suite as the corundum or yakut, it is found in red, blue, green, light, is a common gemstone in India that was also known in Persia, but I can't find a name for it in Persian. If one should venture a conjecture, one might mistake the kuser for tourmaline, although it is striking that its well-known electrical property is not noticed.
G. The Chamachan.
chamachan in Persian, which with senbade d.i. Diamond spar was a very hard stone that could only be drilled through diamond.
chamachan, khamahan in Arabic, is a very hard stone according to the dictionaries; Taifaschi only says of him: he is a stone for painters, of the nature and quality of iron, comes from Carac and is reddish black. Drinking wine from it does no harm to health.
chacamcam in Samaritan, also chamcam, chacun (which translates the stone nophec in Hebrew), can belong here.
komedegun in Ceylonese, has a resemblance to the name [resemblance], is said to be garnet or carpentry stone.
The Chamachan is usually translated by haematites, i.e. Rotheisenstein, which, however, would like to be very doubtful; The great hardness and the connection with diamond spath (sembade) make it probable that this was used to designate our Kaneelstein (essonite), which is a coarse hyacinth or zircon (see these).
H. The Ebrendsche.
ebrendsche, abrendsche in Persian, was also a very hard stone, as it was only used to grind the laal. It is probably incorrectly translated as gold marcasite (iron gravel). In no other language can I find a similar name. In any case, the stone produced a very hard grinding powder and belonged in the vicinity of diamond spath, corundum, emery.
i. The Jarakan.
Jarakan in Persian was a stone with red and yellow spots, so hard that it is only drilled by a diamond; the swallows carry the little black stone into their nest to cure the young of jaundice.
I cannot find a similar name in other languages; the stone itself seems only to have been a marvelous, magical one.
C. Our genus Spinel.
Our spinel is very much related to the mentioned genus corundum (Jakut), especially the ruby, but less hard and noble; it differs through somewhat different chemical constituents, a somewhat specific lower weight, especially through its crystal form, for it is found in octahedra with sharp points, the corundum in columns. Only recently (since Romé de l'Isle, Werner and Hauy) has the two genera been differentiated and fixed mineralogically; but the jewelers do not yet know this genus from a technical point of view, but rather assign other names to the stones belonging to this category, usually understanding them as balais. In terms of color, one differentiates:
a) the red, similar to ruby, only the color is usually dirtier, has a yellow tinge. The jewelers call this: ruby spinel, rubis spinelle, if it is dark red; Rubin balais, Balas rubin, (rubis balais, balai ruby) when it is pale red or rose red, goutte de sang when it is completely blood red; b) the blue or bluish-red, which is the most common and the meanest, is usually referred to by jewelers as almandine, almandine ruby; c) the rare yellow or yellow-red, as Rubicell, also topaze orientale; d) the green of dirty color is very rare, hardly used; e) the very dark, almost black one is known to mineralogists as zeilanite or pleonast, and is rarely used technically.
The spinel is often found in India, especially in Ceylon and Pegu, and was therefore certainly always known in the Orient; it is also found more rarely and less beautiful in Europe.
The above-mentioned gousch in Persian and banfasch in Arabic, which will not be different from laal, could be our spinel, because what is said of it and the species that are set up of it fit this very well, and if it is said: the red is more violet than the ruby, so this is really the case with the spinel, but not with the zircon.
I have not yet been able to determine the name of the stone in the Indian languages, I do not know whether and to what extent it was separated from the ruby.
In the Middle Ages the name spinula, spinla, spinellus appears for gemstones that are not as dark as the rubies, and not as light as the balagii; it is probably borrowed from spina, espina, the point, probably because of the sharp-pointed octahedra; the name passed into the modern languages and was then mineralogically restricted to our genus spinel, which was fixed by Romé de l'Isle and Werner (1790) and separated from the ruby.
espinella, also rubicelo in Spanish; —espinel in Portuguese; —spinelle in French, actually rubin spinel octaedre; spinel in Dutch, Danish, Swedish; —rubino-spinello in Italian.
In Russian he is usually counted as laal.
D. Our genus Zircon and Hyacinth.
This genus is closest to Demant in terms of its luster, and also very much resembles the genus corundum and spinel, but differs in its crystalline form, hardness, heaviness, chemical constituents, especially in less pure and beautiful colors.
One differentiates: a) the red zircon, it is seldom deep red, often yellow-red, and is then called hyacinth; This is found mostly crystallized in columnar form, while the zircon occurs for the most part in grains, and the jewelers regard this yellow-red, crystalline zircon as a separate genus of gemstones under the name Hyacinth; Werner also separated it from the zircon, only later is it completely connected to this mineralogically. The hyacinth often serves as a ring stone, while the other types of zircon are used more for decoration, since their color is mostly gray; b) the yellow zircon; c) the blue zircon, mostly dark colored; d) the green zircon; e) the gray, white or water-white; this is the most common, is used very generally instead of diamond, and under its name for decoration; the colored species are often burned (glowed) in order to discolor them.
The zircon and the hyacinth are common in Ceylon and can also be found in Europe, but less beautiful.
The name Hyacinth comes from the Orient and antiquity from hyacinthos in Greek, jakinth in Armenian, jakut in Arabic, etc., where it referred to ruby and corundum (see above), and this name has been wrongly transferred to the red zircon, the but now in all modern languages it has the same name as jacintho in Spanish and Portuguese; giancinto in Italian, hyacinthe in French, hyacinth in English, German.
The name zircon is of Indian origin, cercars is the name of the stone in India, cerkon or gargum in Ceylon.
The zircons had long been known to jewelers, as jargon de Ceylon in French, sargone in Italian, circone, giargone in English, cerconier in German; The name zircon has passed into the scientific mineralogy of all languages.
The name of the stone in the oriental, especially the Semitic, languages has not yet been determined, although it must have been known well. The above-mentioned kerkend in Persian with karkand, karkeden, etc., has a name similarity to cerkon; but since it is only given a dark red color, there is not much to be said about it. The laal in Persian, the balchasch, has a suite of colors like zircon, it is possible that this name would have meant zircon.
Gargchhkan in Armenian is the name of a stone that is translated as carbunculus and has a name similarity to gargum.
zumbel in Turkish is translated as hyacinthus orientalis; but whether it belongs here remains to be seen.
λιχνιτης, lichnis, lichnitis of the Greeks and Romans, may have belonged here.
The jargons of Ceylon used to be counted among the Hyacinth; Werner fixed it in 1783 as the genus zircon, in which Klaproth discovered zirconia in 1789, which he soon found in the Hyacinthe.
E. Our genus Kaneelstein or Essonit.
It is closely related to the Hyacinthe, yellow-red, of mostly impure colors, is not found in perfect crystals or grains, but as a crystalline, ingrown mass in granitic rock, quite common in Ceylon, also in India, rarely in Europe. It is rarely used as a gem stone, it is more often used as a grinding powder. It does not seem to be specifically different from the Hyacinthe, to be related to the latter as the diamond spath does to the corundum.
It has been known to jewelers for a long time as the Zimmernstein, because of its red-brown color, cinnamon stone in English, hyacinth brun in French.
He was certainly always known in the Orient.
komedegan in Ceylonese is said to be zimmstein or garnet.
chamachan in Persian and Arabic can belong here, see above.
Hauy gave the stone the name essonite from ἡσσον in Greek, i.e. less.
F. Our genus garnet.
The noble garnet is a valued gemstone, but of less hardness and less fire than the gemstones mentioned, which is very common on Ceylon, in India, also in Europe, more often of significant size, and in clear rhombohedra, most often in grains. It has mostly dark red colors, usually with a bluish tinge, which emerge more when looking through than when looking at it; The garnets are therefore used more for earrings and necklaces than for ring stones; the dark red ones are often cut en cabouchon, i.e. semicircular and hollow at the bottom, which are then also called garnet shells. There are 2 main types:
a) the pyrop, garnet pyrop or rouge, blood-red in color, which often has a tinge of yellow, approaches the hyacinthe, then means vermeille in French, giacinto gnarnecino in Italian; occurs less often in India, more frequently in Europe, especially in Bohemia, as Bohemian garnet is very well known;
b) the actual garnet or carfuncle of a very dark red color that falls into the blue and looks particularly beautiful when looked through. This is in India (bey Salem, Nellore) in Pegu, especially on Ceylon, very well known as oriental garnet, called carbuncle, or rubino dirocco in Italian, escarboncle, grenat syrien (from a destroyed city Sirian in Pegu) or de sorane im French, Syrian garnet, carbuncle, Almadin in German.
rawa in Ceylon; —rauwa in Malay; pusma ragam will also belong here.
badensch, madensch, madebensch in Persian, which was cut en cabouchon, will belong here; -
Badschadi, basadi, baradi and especially the madisch in Arabic, of a very dark red color, with a tinge of blue, which was mostly cut en cabuchon, will belong here, but one can also include dark tourmalines (see tourmaline); —Betschate in Amharic; —bidschadet, bigiad, bigiade in Turkish (whence bigiazaek, which means precious stone in general).
The Turkish jewelers are usually called sejlan, seljan lascht, hadschr seilan (i.e. stone from Ceylon).
Sumaki is now the general name of the garnet, in Turkish and Arabic (according to a pleasant note from Dr. Rohrig in Constantinople). Ben Manssur has a jakut sumaki in Persian, i.e. a porphyry red.
Basch in the Egyptian hieroglyphic language, Champollion translates as basalt; in the sound of the name there seems to be a resemblance to basadi in Arabic.
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