How can I mine a salt coin

Practical tasks Salt not only for the soup. Suggestions instead of recipes or templates:


1 Jana Holling, Ingrid Schweitzer, state and school set coordinators SINUS Primary School Schleswig-Holstein Workshop SINUS Primary School Neuss 14. / Salt not just for the soup. How children’s previous knowledge can be developed into basic knowledge in general teaching On the basis of questions, ideas and previous knowledge of children, initial insights into scientific concepts should be conveyed, taking into account teaching-specific methods and elementary school contexts Practical tasks Salt not just for the soup Suggestions instead of recipes or templates : What do children need to be able to do and know when they are working on the task? How can I initiate specific work techniques / methods by formulating the task? Which impulses enable children to develop the experimental set-up themselves? What problems did I encounter during implementation? What new questions arise from the implementation of the tasks? How do I have to rearrange the suggestions for my classroom situation? How can the project be documented? Which possibilities of performance observance are suitable? (Of course, the explanations are not to be given!) 1

2 Salt extraction How is salt actually extracted? We need: Tealight with saucer Matches A tablespoon or a small metal vessel of concentrated salt solution (a lot of salt is dissolved in a drinking glass in a little hot water) The tealight is placed on the saucer and lit. A small amount of the saline solution is placed on the spoon and held over the burning tea light. Attention! Do not let the salt burn! Explanation: When the water has evaporated, a white crust of salt remains on the spoon. The salt crystals can be seen with the magnifying glass. Further research: historical representations of salt production 2

3 Salt through the magnifying glass What does a grain of salt actually look like? Look at some salt through the magnifying glass / under the dissecting microscope. Can you draw what you see Salt in the soup What actually happens to the salt in the soup? We need: a glass vessel (approx. 0.5 1 L) 3 tablespoons of salt warm water (thermos flask) stirring spoon First the water is poured into the vessel, then the salt is added and stirred with the spoon until nothing more see is. 3

4 Egg in a glass Does the salt change the properties of water? How can we prove that salt water is heavier than tap water? We need: a glass jar (small jar or liter jar) salt a spoon a raw egg The jar is filled half full with water. A raw egg is carefully placed inside. What happens to the egg? Now a lot of salt is poured into the glass and carefully stirred. There can be so much salt that it won't eventually dissolve. What happens to the egg? Explanation: The egg is heavier than tap water, but lighter than salt water. 4th

5 Road salt What happens if salt is sprinkled in winter? We need: two plates 4 ice cubes of salt Two ice cubes are placed on each plate, the ice cubes on one plate are sprinkled with salt. Now one has to wait and see explanation: Salt melts ice. Salt water doesn't freeze as quickly as tap water 5

6 Ice Cream with Salt Were people able to eat ice cream in the summer when there was no freezer? Chocolate ice cream without a refrigerator Illustration of the use of salt to make ice cream We need (amount of ice for 4 people): electric mixer, mixing bowl, a tablespoon, an empty, well-cleaned coffee can, a large saucepan (approx. 25 cm in diameter, an old cloth, a hammer or wooden tamper 2 cups of sweet cream about 4 tablespoons of cocoa or chocolate powder 1 packet of salt and enough pieces of ice to fill the pot halfway Instructions: The cream is whipped with the mixer until stiff. The cocoa is stirred in. The mixture is added The ice cubes are poured onto the cloth and the cloth is tied. The ice cubes in the cloth are crushed with a hammer. Ice and salt are distributed in layers in the saucepan. The coffee can with the cream mixture is placed in the middle so that it's surrounded by the ice and salt mixture, and it won't be long before the chocolate eneis is ready! The mixture in the coffee can is stirred again and again so that the can rotates in the ice cream mixture. Explanation of the phenomenon: (see 365 Experiments for Every Day, p. 204): The salt melts the ice cubes. However, heat is consumed during the melting process. The ice cream gets this warmth from the cocoa mixture. This cools it down so much that it freezes to ice. 6th

7 Short form: Ice cream production You need: a high saucepan a jam jar with a lid that fits in the saucepan ice cubes salt mixing spoon sweet cream ready-made cocoa A mixture of ice and salt is filled into a high saucepan. The cream is whipped until stiff and finished cocoa is stirred in (amount depending on taste) and poured into the jam jar (there must still be space to stir!). first the jar is closed with the lid. Put the glass in the pot with the ice-salt mixture and sprinkle a little more salt on the last layer. Now you can unscrew the lid from the glass. The cocoa-cream mixture is constantly stirred with the spoon. Soon the mass begins to solidify. So that it becomes evenly firm, the stirring process should be continued until the desired ice firmness is achieved. We need: Long-term observation How salt crystals are formed A glass vessel of salt Woolen thread and wooden sticks A salt solution (dissolve as much salt as possible) is filled into the glass vessel and the wooden stick is placed across the glass. The wool thread is attached to the wooden stick and hung in the solution. What happens after 2 days? 7th

8 Explanation: The salt mixture crystallizes through the evaporation process. Think up an experiment: How can you separate a salt mixture? The following are mixed: salt and sand 8

9 How can we show that salt dehydrates plants? One lettuce leaf is placed in a vessel with salt water, another in a vessel with tap water. Both vessels are left to stand overnight. The salt draws water out of the leaf so that the leaf wrinkles and becomes limp 9

10 What place names can reveal about salt Salt used to be extracted here: How can I tell? We have the term salt, sol (e), sod in many place names. Hall is a Celtic word for salt that we also find in place names. So now we are looking for salt places: A child looks up the directory of postcodes and names the place name and postcode. The other child places a cross on the map where the first two digits of the postcode can be found. z. For example: Salzbergen: 48499: A small cross is placed in field 48. Can you find 15 towns? 10

11 Working with factual texts My suggestion for the implementation in the classroom: 1. We create a salt lexicon with the help of factual texts 2. Give a lecture 3. A question and answer game 11

12 Factual text 1 salt, a crystal Salt is a very special substance. It consists of sodium and chlorine. That is why the chemist calls it sodium chloride. In the case of salt, the smallest particles are called ions. These are tiny building blocks that are electrically charged and attract each other. The sodium ion / the sodium building block tries to attract as many chlorine ions / chlorine building blocks as possible. The chlorine ion tries to bind as many sodium ions as possible. In both cases, however, it cannot be more than 6. A cube-shaped crystal is then created from many millions of ions. The individual particles are held together by an internal force. There is no sign of this to the outside world. When the salt is heated to 800 degrees Celsius, the bandage will loosen. Then the salt melts. But there is still a very simple way of separating the individual particles from one another. You put the salt in the water. Salt dissolves in water. 12th

13 Factual text 2 What is salt? We usually think that salt is the substance with which the soup is seasoned and made edible. It is also often referred to as table salt. Table salt consists of tiny grains called crystals. It occurs as solid salt in salt mines in underground salt domes (rock salt). There is also salt dissolved in water in brine springs, which are salty springs. Then it is called vacuum salt. Sea salt is found in sea water. In chemistry, table salt is called sodium chloride because it consists of the two basic substances (elements) sodium and chloride. 13th

14 Factual text 3 How does the salt get into the sea? Some say that salt was in the sea from the beginning. Others think that the salt has collected in the sea very slowly and over many millions of years. Many, many millions of years ago there were volcanoes all over the world. Lava kept pouring out of them. The lava mass also brought with it substances from the interior of the earth, from which salt is made. It also rained for millions of years later. When it started to rain, rivers, lakes and the sea formed. The rain loosened the salt from the cold lava. It got into the sea via the rivers. 14th

15 Factual text 4 The meaning of salt for people Salt, the small, inconspicuous grain, was very valuable in earlier times. It was also called the white gold. All people, poor or rich, in the city or in the country, needed salt. Because no one can live without salt. But salt wasn't everywhere. In many areas it was scarce. That made it particularly valuable and a valuable commodity, as valuable as gold. How happy were the places where the salt was extracted. The salt trade made them rich and powerful. People mainly needed salt to preserve their food. Meat, sausage, fish and vegetables could be stored for many months if they were heavily salted. Meat was made into salted meat and herrings were made into salted herrings. Fridges and freezers didn't exist before! Of course, the salt was also used for seasoning, because many dishes would not taste good without salt. The salt was brought to the table in precious vessels: rich people even had salt shakers made of silver or gold! 15th

16 Factual text 5 We all need salt! Salt ensures that our blood has the right level of fluidity. Around 50 grams of table salt flow in human blood. Since we excrete salt every day, we must also consume salt every day. Perhaps you have already got a tear in your mouth, then you have surely tasted how salty tears are. Humans also regularly excrete salt from the body in beads of sweat and with urine. We cannot live without salt, but too much is also unhealthy. But the body reports if the food is too salty: Then you get very thirsty. When you drink now, the strong salt solution in your blood will dilute itself back to the right level. In our body, the kidneys are responsible for ensuring that the salt-water balance is right. A person needs 126.5 kilograms of salt in 70 years of life. In fact, he eats twice as much! 16

17 Factual text 6 Boiling salt Boiling salt is an old process for extracting salt. The brine - this is how the salty water is called - was boiled in large, open pans until the water had evaporated and the salt remained. The pans were up to 20 meters long, a few meters wide and 50 to 60 cm deep. They were heated with one or more fire places. How much salt was obtained in the process depended on the salt content of the brine. The higher the salt content, the more salt could be boiled out. Of course, the consumption of fuel was very high. Firewood has to be brought in in large quantities. But because the wood was becoming scarce in some places, attempts were made to convey the brine through wooden pipes to where there was enough fuel. Today the brine is brought into closed evaporation systems. The resulting salt paste goes into centrifuges, where the moisture is thrown off. Finally, the salt is dried in large fluidized bed systems or drums. 17th

18 Factual text 7 Salt gardens All salt comes from the sea. Approximately 30 grams of salt are dissolved in every liter of seawater. With the help of the sun, salt can be extracted from the sea water. The salty sea water is channeled into shallow pools. Small walls prevent the water from flowing away. The sun makes the water evaporate. The salt remains. Tiny creatures give the basins a greenish to red color. That is why these facilities are also called salt marshes. It is algae or bacteria that can live well in salt water. This form of salt production is over a thousand years old. In the southern countries, salt is still extracted in this way today. With the help of technology, however, the process has been simplified and improved. 18th

19 Factual text 8 Salt trade and salt transport We know that salt is essential for human life. Not all people could live near salt springs or by the sea, because the earth's salt reserves are unevenly distributed. So salt had to be brought to people in distant areas. This is how the salt trade came about. In order to be able to transport the salt from one place to another, salt roads and salt paths that led over land and water were created in the past. Taxes and customs duties were levied on the precious commodity very early on. The salt transports were almost always long and arduous. Salt is a heavy commodity and, even in ships, the entire hold could not be packed full. Draft animals and pack animals could only carry a few sacks of salt. Because salt dissolves in water, wet weather made long journeys difficult. Rain showers and moisture could damage poorly packaged salt cargoes or even render them unusable! On the high seas, the salt was mostly transported in wooden barrels. On the back of horses and mules or on the back of wagons, linen sacks were used as packaging material because they were lighter than wooden barrels. 19th

20 My reflection sheet Could I answer some of my questions? How did i work (alone, as a couple) How did I feel at work? What helped me I find what I have learned particularly interesting: I would like to know more about this: 20

21 Finds 24-hour pickles 21 & linkCode = as2 & camp = 1638 & creative = 6742 & creativeASIN = Brush the cucumbers with a vegetable brush under water. Separate the stem and flower, layer them in a container, add a few peppercorns and 2 to 3 vine leaves or currant leaves (they keep the cucumbers nice and crisp). Garlic to taste 3-5 cloves, dried dill about a teaspoon. Then add 2 tablespoons of salt to one liter of water, bring to the boil and pour over the cucumber and then close the container. After the cucumbers have cooled, place in the refrigerator. The cucumbers can be eaten after 24 hours and can be kept in the refrigerator for around 10 days. Making sauerkraut Ingredients 5kg white cabbage 100g salt Preparing the sauerkraut Fresh, solid white cabbage is best for making sauerkraut. After removing the outer leaves, the cabbage must be finely sliced. Now it is layered alternately with salt in a stone pot. Each layer of sauerkraut must be pounded until the liquid that escapes covers the cabbage. Then the next layer of white cabbage can be applied with salt. Depending on your needs and taste, the following ingredients can be added to the sauerkraut for each layer: Sugar, Caraway, Juniper berries, Grape leaves, Carrots, Apple slices.After the whole white cabbage has been layered and mashed, the stone pot must be covered with a clean cloth, weighted down with an object (e.g. stone) and then on be stored in a cool place. The cloth should be changed about once a week. Fermentation is complete after approx. 4-6 weeks and the sauerkraut is ready to eat. 21

22 sole eggs 6 1 1 / / 4 eggs Bay leaf teaspoon. Peppercorns g salt teaspoon. Mustard seeds liters of water Boil the eggs hard in about 20 minutes. Quench in cold water, bend the shell so that it cracks all around. Layer eggs in a mason jar. Boil the salt, spices and water for a few minutes. Let cool, pour over the eggs. Let it stand in a cool place for at least 1 to 2 days. Sole eggs, a Rhenish specialty, are eaten like this in the pubs: peeled, halved and the egg yolk squeezed out. Put some vinegar, hot mustard and a few drops of oil in the hollow. Sprinkle with pepper and immediately put in your mouth. 22nd

23 How the salt got into the sea A fairy tale from Asia Once upon a time, a long, long time ago, two brothers lived in a small fishing village. The older of them was named Chen. He was angry, greedy, and sly, and only concerned with his own gain. But Lin, the younger, was a courageous and honest fisherman who worked hard and was content with what he had done with his own hands. Every morning the hardworking Lin went out to sea in his little boat to fish. But his fishing nets were very old and he had no money to buy new ones. As soon as fish got caught in it, his nets tore and the entire catch escaped. More and more often, Lin came home to his family without a single fish.It went on for a while. But one evening he was so desperate that he just couldn't sleep. In the middle of the night an old man stood in front of him and said: Lin, now you have shown patience and courage. As a reward, I'll give you a mug. He has magical powers and will change your life. But watch out for my words! You don't have to do anything other than say: Jug, give salt. And it will be filled with this precious commodity. When you've had enough, you say to him: stop, thank you and in the same moment he will empty again. Lin thanked him and took the precious gift. He did as he was told. Every day from now on he discussed the magic mug. This filled himself with salt as often as he wanted. Lin sold it and got rich from it. But his older brother Chen did not grant him happiness. He was terribly jealous. One morning he followed Lin and watched him. Chen overheard him say: Jug, give salt. 23

24 Then he saw the jar pouring salt. Out of sheer impatience, however, he did not hear the second part of the words. When Lin went to the market, he snuck into his house and stole the magic jug. He wanted to try it out immediately. He got into his boat and went out to sea so that no one would watch him. As soon as he got there, he said: Jug, give me salt. And as with his brother, the jug was filled with salt. But the salt didn't stop flowing. It spilled over his feet, over the entire boat, and didn't want to stop. When Chen noticed this, he screamed in dire need: Help me, I'm drowning! He cursed and begged, but it didn't help. He didn't know the magic formula. Because of his greed, he didn't wait for what Lin said to end the Salt River. And so the weight of the salt eventually pushed the entire boat under the water. With the small fishing boat, Chen and the pitcher also sank in the water. Since that day the magic jar has been lying on the sea floor. And since no one can tell him the formula that it will stop, salt is coming out of him to this day. And that's why the sea water is salty. 24

25 Material: Item-Word-Number: Issue 88 / September 2007: Salt Lamschus, Hilke: My white gold from Lüneburg, Lüneburg 2003 Can be obtained from: German Salt Museum, Sülfmeisterstraße 1, Lüneburg, Tel