How are electronic circuits made

Integrated circuits (IC)

Many circuits or circuit parts occur again and again in practical electronics. In order not to have to build or reinvent these, sometimes complex, circuits over and over again, they are combined in integrated circuits (IS = Integrated Circuit) and encapsulated in a housing.

Integrated Circuit Benefits

  • inexpensive
  • space saving
  • operationally reliable

Disadvantages of integrated circuits

  • defective IC difficult to see
  • a special tool is required for desoldering
  • Difficult to procure spare parts due to the variety of types (special types)

Analog ICs

Analog ICs mainly contain high and low frequency amplifiers, controllable amplifiers, mixers, filter circuits, operational amplifiers, instrumentation amplifiers, power amplifiers, reference voltage sources, voltage regulators, sample / hold, actuator (motion control) and sensor circuits.
Coils (gyrators) with very high inductance and very high quality and capacitors with very high capacitance are simulated by circuits with operational amplifiers, resistors and capacitors with low capacities. These circuits are suitable for signal processing purposes, but not for large currents and large powers.

A circuit acts like a coil when the voltage leads the current by 90 ° (phase shift).
A circuit acts like a capacitor when the current leads the voltage by 90 ° (phase shift).

Digital ICs

Digital ICs contain circuits that process digital states and contain logical links from digital technology.
They are manufactured using bipolar or MOS technology. MOS circuits are particularly cheap to manufacture and have a lower power consumption.

Monolithic integrated circuits

The planar technology makes it possible to accommodate all components of a circuit in one manufacturing process on a silicon plate, the so-called chip. Since the components in an IC have no external connections, one speaks of switching or functional elements.

Degree of integration

The degree of integration describes the number of transistors in an integrated circuit. Instead of transistors, logic gates can also be meant. One then speaks of logical complexity. There is no fixed standard unit for the integration density.
The LSI and VLSI integration levels require computer-aided design methods (e.g. CAD).

  • SSI (Small Scale Integration)
    Up to 100 functional elements on a chip area of ​​3 mm2.
    Applications: digital gates (logic elements)
  • MSI (Medium Scale Integration)
    Up to 1,000 functional elements on a chip area of ​​8 mm2.
    Applications: analog-digital combined circuits
  • LSI (Large Scale Integration)
    Up to 100,000 functional elements on a chip area of ​​20 mm2.
    Applications: analog-digital combined circuits, memories, microprocessors
  • VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration)
    Over 100,000 functional elements on a chip area of ​​30 mm2.
    Applications: memories, microprocessors
  • ULSI (Ultralarge Scale Integration)
    1,000,000 to 10,000,000 functional elements

DIL housing

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