Can vodka kill an 11 year old
Alcohol in children and adolescents
Children today are often used to the taste of alcohol at an early age, because sweets, foods and even medicines, which are sometimes expressly described as being suitable for this age group, contain alcohol. Some children get their first experience with alcohol at family celebrations - half a glass of sparkling wine can be drunk to celebrate the day. For children this is the first step into the adult world, because the adults show the children that alcohol is part of being an adult. Mostly allowed for confirmation drank "properly" for the first time become. The effects of alcohol in children are different from those in adults:
- The child's nervous system reacts more sensitively - a child can become unconscious from as little as 0.5 per thousand alcohol in the blood. If alcohol poisoning is suspected, a doctor should be consulted immediately.
- The lower the child's body weight, the more the amount of alcohol consumed causes a higher blood alcohol content in the body, so that even small amounts of alcohol can be fatal.
- For schoolchildren, the danger area is 3 grams of alcohol per kilogram of body weight, while for adults only twice that amount is fatal.
- The typical intoxicating early stage is absent in small children; rather, the child can suddenly fall into deep anesthesia.
- Frequent alcohol consumption affects the mental and physical development of children.
- Studies show that brain of heavy drinkers cannot develop normally, although adolescent heavy drinkers are also 60 percent more likely to become addicted to alcohol. However, brain and body development is not only impaired by heavy drinking, but also by small amounts of alcohol.
See also alcohol
See also children of alcoholic parentsIn order to determine the rates of children and adolescents who already drink alcohol regularly, they were asked in a 1998 study by Bielefeld University how often they drink beer, wine and spirits. Regular alcohol consumption was defined as the consumption of alcoholic beverages, even in small quantities, at least once a week. In the majority of countries, regular alcohol consumption among the 11-year-olds does not yet play a major role. With a few exceptions, the rates are below an average of 5%. The rates are particularly low in Norway, Finland, Germany, Latvia and Switzerland, where there is practically no regular alcohol consumption among 11-year-old girls. There was a moderate increase in rates for the 13-year-olds. The ranking of the countries remains almost the same. Only in Germany and Denmark is there an above-average increase.
Alcohol consumption is already common among the 15 year olds in a large number of young people in all countries. The adolescents should also report how often they have been drunk in their life. The rate of adolescents with multiple experiences of drunkenness rises steeply with the age group, with the highest rates being found in northwestern Europe. The frequencies found in Great Britain are about 10 times higher than in Sweden, France, Germany, Switzerland and Norway. In the 13-year-olds, the difference between the highest and lowest frequency found is about 6 times. Among the 15-year-olds, the difference between the countries shrinks to a factor of three.
A geographical pattern can be observed that indicates that young people from the southern European countries around the Mediterranean are very rarely drunk, while young people from Western and Central Europe report disproportionately often of being drunk. With the exception of Denmark, the Scandinavian countries have comparably low rates. In almost all countries, boys are more likely to experience drunkenness than girls, especially in the younger age groups.
In the case of the 15-year-olds, the difference between the sexes is put into perspective. Young people who consume alcohol frequently also smoke more often and vice versa. This can be understood as a general tendency towards the consumption of psychoactive substances. This is more pronounced in the group of their peers: regular smoking and alcohol consumption are more common when young people often meet with friends after school or in the evening.
Frequent alcohol consumption and drunkenness are linked to problems at school for many young people. A comparison between the representative HBSC surveys carried out in 1994 and 1998 shows that in most Western European countries regular alcohol use among young people shows a clearly decreasing trend, while it is increasing in Eastern Europe. The frequency of drunkenness, on the other hand, is generally increasing among adolescents. Only in Germany is there a slight decrease for both girls and boys.
For the European student study On alcohol and other drugs (ESPAD), data from 12,448 schoolchildren in the ninth and tenth grades were examined in 2007. The result was that 66.8 percent of them drink beer - in 2003 it was only 56.4 percent. The consumption of spirits, which is still banned at this age, also rose from 52.6 to 56.9 percent. 19.2 percent of the students stated that they had bought spirits one or more times in the past 30 days.
According to a French study, anyone who drinks alcohol in large quantities as a teenager is at risk permanent brain damage. Drinking slows down or blocks the full maturation of the gray cells in some areas of the brain, which are usually only fully grown at the end of adolescence. Magnetic resonance imaging of those affected showed up to 20 percent fewer gray cells near the forehead. Additional skill tests carried out showed damage to certain cognitive functions, for example when planning tasks or solving problems. This is confirmed in a study by Chitra Mandyam (California) on primates, in which four animals were allowed to drink an alcoholic lemon-flavored beverage for one hour a day for a period of eleven months, with blood tests showing that the animals got drunk to an alcohol level , which corresponds to about 2.5 per thousand in humans. After a two month Abstinence phase In comparison to animals that had not drunk any alcohol, significant changes are still found in the structure of the hippocampus. It can therefore be assumed that regular alcohol consumption also has long-lasting effects on the functions of the hippocampus in humans.
Without author (2003). Health Behavior in School-Children (HBSC) Selected results from the 1998 study.
healthyhw / ag4 / projects /
Hurrelmann K., Klocke, A., Melzer, W. & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (Eds.) (2003). Youth Health Survey. Weinheim, Munich: Juventa Verlag.
3aktuell / 2007/01 / kua / kua01_2007alkohol.html (07-07-07)
For details seeAdolescents and drug use
Prevention has to start in infancy
Experts believe that addiction prevention is in the Kindergarten age must begin, because excessive alcohol in children and adolescents (Coma drinking) usually have their roots in early childhood. If the toddler gets his bottle, a piece of candy or other consolation every time he screams, the child will hardly learn to deal with feelings of discomfort, but rather think that the general discomfort can be satisfied through oral satisfaction. That is also important Parents act as role models - see below - because if it is normal for parents to drink beer and wine at dinner, or to pour a glass of alcohol when they are frustrated, then the children learn how to do this Problem solving strategy and internalize them. There is also a big difference between devouring a chocolate bar out of frustration and letting a piece of chocolate melt on your tongue.
Influence of alcohol advertising
According to statistics, although absolute alcohol consumption is falling slightly in Germany, it is Trend towards excessive drinking increases continuously. According to a study of 3,400 schoolchildren between the ages of ten and seventeen in Germany, the Alcohol advertising the trend towards coma drinking among adolescents, because whoever comes into contact with commercials frequently drinks alcohol excessively twice as often as peers with few advertising contacts, with male adolescents succumbing to the charms of advertising significantly more often than girls. Basically, adolescents drink the more alcohol the more often they see alcohol advertisements, although they can hardly avoid the relevant advertisements: rum under palm trees, herbal schnapps in the scene meeting, prosecco in the women's group - only 1.5 percent of the students surveyed said they had never done one Having seen the prescribed alcohol advertisements. Hospital admissions for minors who are dangerously intoxicated have increased by 36 percent in the past four years alone. The youngest patients were twelve years old. These results underline the expert report of the European Commission on the influence of alcohol advertising on minors, which also comes to the conclusion that alcohol advertising influences attitudes towards alcohol and later drinking behavior.
Methodological background to the studyThe advertising material used in the study was "masked", i.e. all references to brand or product names were deleted. Exposure to alcohol advertising was recorded through recognition of the advertising and correct branding.
Over half (54%) of the students had seen at least 6 of the 9 specified alcohol advertisements. The highest rate was achieved by advertising for “Krombacher Pils” (95% have seen it at least once), followed by “Jägermeister” (84%). Overall, it was found that contact with alcohol advertising seems to be as high as that with advertisements with a different content (e.g. sweets, car brands). Boys showed higher recognition and brand recall values than girls in alcohol advertisements, but not in control advertisements.
Using multivariate regression analyzes, it was possible to show a linear dose-response relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising and various alcohol consumption variables, including lifetime consumption, current consumption and binge drinking. Even after statistical consideration of a number of control variables, students with the highest dose of alcohol advertising had about twice as high a chance of belonging to the group of alcohol users as compared to students with the lowest dose.
For never-users, there was also a significant correlation between the level of exposure to alcohol advertising and susceptibility to alcohol, such that never-users with higher exposure had more positive expectations regarding the effects of alcohol and were more likely to assume that they would later use alcohol drink or are less likely to refuse. On the other hand, there was no connection between alcohol consumption / susceptibility and exposure to advertising for non-alcoholic beverages.
Morgenstern M., Isensee B., Sargent J.D. & Hanewinkel R. (2009). Teens and alcohol advertising. Research report by the Institute for Therapy and Health Research, IFT-Nord on behalf of the German Salaried Health Insurance Fund, DAK.
WWW: http://www.ift-nord.de/pdf/bericht_alkoholwerbung.pdf (09-05-15)
What Parents Can Do
- Depending on the age with the child clear, binding rules (if possible together with the partner).
- Youth Protection Act as a basis: up to 16 years of age: absolute alcohol ban, 16-18 years of age: beer and wine are allowed, but high-percentage alcoholic beverages (15 to 96 percent alcohol by volume) are still prohibited. This also applies to all types of mixed drinks.
- to be a role model: Children learn to say "no" more easily when they have experienced it from their parents.
- Do not leave half-full glasses and bottles after celebrations and parties.
- Safe journey home to festivals or after the disco by pick-up service or taxi. Or organize the possibility of staying overnight on site.
- Boost self-confidence and self-esteem in teenagers.
- give trust, even if a slip has happened. It is normal for children and young people to experiment and explore limits.
source: Hebestreit, Dietlind (2009). Teenagers in the alcohol trap.
WWW: http://www.nachrichten.at/ratgeber/gesundheit/art114,156729 link: http://www.praevention.at/
There is also a Free life expectancy test on http://test.gesundheit.ch/!
[Thanks for the link to Hermann Strasser from Landesberufsschule 2 Salzburg]
Drunk as a stick twelve-year-olds are not an isolated case
"The problem of young people and alcohol is becoming more and more serious," says Erich Wahl, head of the youth centers in Linz. "We have twelve-year-olds who are already drunk in the morning. And these are not isolated cases," said Erich Wahl.
The association "Jugend und Freizeit", whose managing director is Erich Wahl, operates 19 youth centers and advice centers. Wahl and his social workers attribute the fact that more and more boys and girls are reaching for the bottle to several factors. "Many people do not want to see the problems of young people. Do not want to face the discussion with them. Because that would mean taking time, listening, arguing," says Wahl. The unwillingness to do so promotes the development of neglect of prosperity.
With the new Youth Protection Act a big step in the right direction had been taken. "Now young people under the age of 18 are not only allowed to not serve alcohol in the inn, but also to sell adults in shops only with a separate permit," explains managing director Wahl. But there is still a lack of willingness among the general population to actively deal with the problem.
Wahl gives an example: "Our street workers tried several times at the Urfahraner Markt to dissuade waiters from serving alcohol to young people." But the willingness to do so was extremely low, to say the least. "They told our employees to leave and not to disrupt business," says Wahl.
"Then nobody needs to be surprised when there are outbreaks of violence by drunk young people." It is well known that alcohol and violence are very often linked. "Not to mention the personal suffering of those affected and the problems that will affect the entire environment," said Wahl.
BY ANNELIESE EDLINGER Upper Austrian News from October 23, 2001
images / educational / teens_drinking.gif (02-08-21)
See also Potential risks of alcohol in children and adolescents
Barry Jones (University of Glasgow) found in a psychological study of 120 male and female students: The more alcohol someone drinks, the more attractive people of the opposite sex appear to them. A liter of beer or four glasses of wine increased the subjectively perceived attractiveness by around 25 percent.
Binge drinking - coma drinking among adolescents
The factsheet of the German Central Office for Addiction Issues states that drinking large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time is not a new phenomenon: “It has not only existed since the term binge drinking became established in Germany. The drama of the fatal outcome of alcohol poisoning among adolescents has led the public to perceive drinking large amounts of alcohol primarily as a problem among adolescents. For sensation-oriented reporting, extreme situations and excessive alcohol are suitable for increasing circulation. In fact, at folk festivals or during Carnival time and on many other occasions, one can see that adults in particular use every opportunity to drink alcohol, often to the point of intoxication. Excessive alcohol consumption is not a specific problem for young people, but one that affects large parts of society across all social classes. "
Binge drinking(Binge drinking) is far from becoming a mass phenomenon, but it must be registered that there are young people who get drunk to the point of unconsciousness, that these are no longer exclusively male young people and that young people under the age of 16 also consume alcohol. Extreme alcohol consumption and also the consumption of illegal substances arise from the need of young people to search for extreme experiences, borderline experiences, intoxication and adventure.
annotation: The Term binge drinking However, it is used in the media in an extremely undifferentiated manner, because on the one hand it describes cases in which people have fallen into a coma due to alcohol consumption, and on the other hand it is used to describe drinking a large amount of alcohol in a relatively short time. Only in the latter case does the term correspond to the English term binge drinking.
According to experts in youth work, it becomes problematic when the experience is gained through trying out that conscious or unconscious feelings of displeasure can be covered up or pleasant states can be created that one otherwise does not or hardly has in one's life. So it always takes one personal dispositionthat a young tester becomes an alcoholic or an addict in some other way. This personal disposition can have various causes, the lack of future prospects such as the pursuit of a meaningful profession is certainly one of the most decisive. Developing such positive plans for the future has been quite difficult for many young people for a long time.
The beginning of the youth phase is generally pushed forward. So it is not a phenomenon of "binge drinking" per se that 12 to 13 year olds already consume alcohol, but is related to the bringing forward of the youth phase. Young people also want to stand out. This need is met by the media hype "binge drinking", and not so few young people want to try out "what it is like" to drink themselves into a coma only because of the excessive media coverage.
This is especially true for 18 to 25 year olds Binge drinkingcommon, drinking at least five alcoholic beverages in a row. According to the drug affinity study by the Federal Center for Health Education in Germany, in 2011 just under 42 percent of these young people drank themselves into such an intoxication at least once in the past 30 days. In terms of frequency of consumption, there are hardly any differences between the young people in the different types of school, but there are risky consumption patterns More widespread among secondary and secondary school students than among high school students.
Scientists from the University of Bamberg have been surveying young people since March 2011 Alcohol poisoning according to their individual reasons to drink in large quantities. About seventy percent of teens drink to have more fun, being this one Reinforcement drinkers above all want to experience a kick. About nineteen percent of teenagers are Coping Drinkerstrying to forget problems with the help of alcohol.
Binge drinking ("Binge drinking") has a strong influence on the memory performance of adolescents and it is assumed that they will massively lose their cognitive abilities for their later life. In particular, the prospective memory suffers, which is responsible for implementing projects at the right time, such as keeping appointments, taking medication or paying a bill on time. Students were tested to see how well they could remember a sequence of tasks, and the coma drinkers among them showed significantly poorer performance in the test. It is believed that the excessive drinking behavior disrupts the neurocognitive development of the brain in adolescents.
Langer, Gabriele (2007). Alternatives to anesthesia.
WWW: http://derstandard.at/?url=/?id=2894270 (07-06-05)
Alcohol instead of heroin
"Ten years ago, the focus was still on heroin and the children from the Zoo station," says psychiatrist Oliver Bilke - now it's about drinking. Bilke can follow the effects of flat-rate parties, binge drinking and habitual drinking among young people every day in his Berlin clinic. More and more 15 to 16 year olds are being admitted because they are chronically alcohol dependent. "The trend is towards drugs that can be easily integrated into the lives of young people," says Bilke. In other words: Heroin seems to have a deterrent effect because it instantly turns addicts into drop-outs. Alcohol does not have this deterrent potential.
source: Lutz Kinkel: 11-year-olds are already reaching for the bottle.
WWW: http://www.stern.de/politik/panorama/600651.html (07-11-07)
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