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What about that proton You can find out here what distinguishes it and why it is so important for the atomic bond.

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Proton explained simply

The proton is a positively charged particle. It is one of the most important parts of the Atomand relevant to the binding of the Electron shell. Its charge is positive and the same size as the charge of the Electrons. With Neutrons form Protons the Atomic nucleus

At the proton it is not a Elementary particles , because the proton is composed of several components. It refers to Quarks who, in turn, have the Gluons are bound to each other. Therefore, the properties of the Protons by the properties and Interactions the Quarks and Gluons set.

The proton is a positively charged, subatomic particle. It is one of the core building blocks of the Atom and is therefore also called Nucleon designated.

What is a proton?

A proton () is a subatomic particle with a positive charge (). This charge is also called Elemental charge designated. Its mass is a little less than that of the Neutrons. Together with the neutron, these two particles are called Nucleons designated. This means that both components of Atomic nuclei are.

Protons are a relevant part of each Atom. For example, the nucleus of a hydrogen atom consists of only one proton. The number of Protons one Atomic nucleus lays its Atomic number firmly. This size is essential and unique to each element of the Peperiod system.

What is a proton made of?

In the past it was believed that the proton a Elementary particles be. Thus it would be indivisible and the smallest possible product in the decomposition of matter. Today we know that proton is itself a composite particle. It consists of so-called Quarks. To be more precise, it consists of two up quarks and one down quark.

All of these particles are in the Standard modeltheParticle physics described. In this, protons belong to the particle family of Hadrons. With the label Hadrons precisely those particles are described which consist of Quarks are composed.

Look at the Standard modeltheParticle physics definitely still that Video at. This will give you a better understanding of what subatomic particles really are.

Proton mass

The bulk of the Protons arises in a special way. You now know that proton out of three Quarks is put together. Maybe you already know them theory of relativity. According to this, there is between Mass and energy an equivalence expressed by the formula . To explain how the bulk of the Protons you need that theory of relativity.

The bulk of the Protons is 80 to 100 times larger than the remaining mass of the Quarks. Remaining mass is around that Binding energyreduced mass since the three Quarks are bound to each other. These Quarks are namely through the strong nuclear power held together. The bulk of the Protons arises from the relativistic movement of the Quarks and the carrier particles of strengthenNuclear power, the so-called Gluons. So this mass is also called invariantDimensions referred to as they are in all Frames of reference remains the same.

Proton charge

Each of the Quarks carries a fraction of the Elemental charge. In the case of the Protons it is formed from two up quarks and one down quark. The up quarks each have a charge of and the down quark a charge of . Together this results in exactly one Elemental charge

Proton energy

The proton has a Resting energy of 938 mega electron volts. The Resting energy is the energy of a body or system in its rest system. This means that it gives information about the energy of the proton, if its pulse Is zero. This energy is about that Equivalence of mass and energy clearly determined.

Proton lifetime

The spontaneousDecay freer Protons could never be observed. Therefore, they are considered stable by today's standards. Nevertheless there are theoretical models the possible lifetimes between and Years. Of course, this has not yet been shown.

Nevertheless, one can observe how Protons in Neutrons convert. However, this does not happen spontaneously. The supply of energy is necessary for this process. This is known as a Electron capture.

The stands for the electron, for neutron and for the electron neutrino. This process is reversible and is then called betaDecay designated.

Electrons, protons, neutrons

For building a Atom it takes three important particles.

The electron has a negativecharge and is a Elementary particles. Be Spin is 1/2 and in its particle family, den Leptons, it has the least mass. Electrons bind to Atomic nuclei and form their Electron shell. The number of included Electrons is at neutral Atoms equal to the Atomic number.

Since that proton out of three Quarks is composed, it is not a Elementary particles. It has a positivecharge and together with the neutron the Atomic nucleus. The neutron and the proton is also known as Nucleons.

The neutron is also made up of three Quarks composed. Their composition leads to the neutronuncharged, so electricneutral is.

Like that too electron to have proton and neutron one Spin of 1/2 and therefore belong to the fermion family.

Proton radius puzzle

Originally, the radius of the proton was determined by electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments on the hydrogen atom. The values ​​obtained in this way for the two methods were in good agreement with one another and were long used as a standard. In 2010, however, these measurements were challenged when an international research group replaced the electron in the hydrogen atom with a muon. The muon has the same properties as the electron, but with a mass 200 times greater. This makes it more sensitive to the proton's charge radius. Measurements on this muonic hydrogen resulted in a smaller radius with significantly greater precision.

Similar measurements were then made on muonic deuterium in 2016 and 2017. Deuterium is also known as heavy hydrogen and is made up of two protons. These measurements have confirmed what was found in the simple muonic hydrogen. In 2017 the Proton Radius Puzzle was finally solved. Another research group carried out new measurements on normal hydrogen. This time, however, a different energetic transition was used for the spectroscopy and the results from experiments with muonic hydrogen could be reproduced. The new findings have opened the door to more precise and extensive experiments.

So you see, even particles like the proton, which were considered well understood for a long time, still raise questions today, the answers of which lead to new insights. In the case of the proton, these new findings led to the recalculation of a fundamental constant, the Rydberg Konstane.