Which languages ​​are extinct

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Extinct languages are historical languages ​​whose speakers have become extinct or whose speakers have switched to another language (have assimilated to another language community).

There are various causes for the extinction of languages. Extinct languages ​​are to be differentiated from "dead" languages, the speakers of which are not extinct in the actual sense, but represent the historical forerunners of today's languages ​​(e.g. the speakers of Latin are not extinct, but have more and more vulgar Latin over time changed until today's Romance languages ​​emerged.)

A variety of languages ​​or language families became extinct after the colonization of America and Australia. Linguists estimate that of the hundreds of Australian languages ​​spoken before European settlement, only 10-20 will survive. The situation is similar in America. Here, too, the majority of the languages ​​disappeared with the arrival of European conquerors, and were replaced by four European languages ​​(English, Spanish, Portuguese, French).

Another area with a high number of endangered languages ​​is New Guinea. Due to the geographical isolation of individual tribes, the interior of the island had a very high language density. The majority of the approximately 1000 languages ​​are threatened with extinction.

A historical displacement is assumed for Africa south of the Sahara. Here the Bantu languages ​​have often replaced older languages. In North Africa it was again Arabic that displaced the previous languages, including the important cultural language Coptic.

Table of Contents

Indo-European languages


Baltic languages

Germanic languages

Iranian languages

Italian languages

Old Italian languages

Romance languages

Celtic languages

Slavic languages

Anatolian languages

Other Indo-European languages

  • Illyrian, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Epirus
  • Liburnian, Croatia
  • Thracian, Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor
  • Tocharian, Xinjiang, China

Turkic languages


Ural languages


Finno-Ugric languages

  • Merjanisch (probably extinct between the 11th century and 14th century)
  • Meschtscherisch (probably extinct in the 16th century)
  • Muromisch (probably extinct between 11th century and 14th century)
  • Kemi Sami (extinct in the 19th century)
  • Akkalaese (last first speaker died in 2003)

Samoyed languages

Caucasian languages


Ancient Mediterranean languages


Ancient oriental languages


Only ancient oriental languages ​​that do not belong to the Indo-European or Afro-Asian language family are listed below.

Afro-Asian languages


Egyptian

Berber languages

  • Garamantisch, North Africa
  • Numidian, North Africa

Semitic

  • Akkadian, present-day Iraq and Syria
  • Ammonite, Middle East
  • Amorite, Middle East
  • Ausanian, South Arabia
  • Hadramautical, South Arabia
  • Hatrenish, Iraq
  • Lihyan, Northern Arabia
  • Moabite, Middle East
  • Nabatean, Northern Arabia
  • Palmyrenian, Syria
  • Phoenician Punic, Middle East, North Africa
  • Qataban, South Arabia
  • Sabaean, South Arabia
  • Thamudisch, North Arabia

Old American languages


See also


literature


  • Harald Haarmann: Lexicon of the lost languages (= Beck's series. 1456). Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-47596-5 (2nd, revised edition, ibid 2004).
  • David Crystal: Half of World's Languages ​​May Become Extinct by 2100. World Resources Institute, September 19, 2007 (online (Memento from April 13, 2010 in Internet Archive)).

Web links


Individual evidence











Categories:List (language) | Historical linguistics




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