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Orient, North Africa and Sahara glossary

(More on the problem of displaying words originally written in Arabic script in Latin script)

When explaining the terms are intentionally kept short. For more detailed explanations, especially on the terms of religion, reference is made to more specialized sources, such as those listed here.

The terms mentioned below come from the literature listed in books and magazines (or pdf version).

The correct display of the Arabic characters depends on the fonts used by the respective browser. If only empty rectangles or similar are visible here, choosing a different browser will help, depending on the operating system and computer configuration. I will shortly be adding an alternative PDF version here.

Aavzu (hate.) a legume variety

Aaz (hate.) Gritty grain that grows in cobs on trees (Merkbe).

From (pers. أَب) water

'Aba, Aba (arab. أبَا ۶ ، أبَا ۶ ة) Bedouin coat

Abaidat Arab. Nomads in northern Cyreneica, from Baida or Baidan (?)

Abankor, abenkor, Pl .: ibenkar (berb.) Water point: a little deep hollow where you come across water after digging for a short time; see Tabankort, Ogla, Tilmas

Abarraka path

Abatal Tuareg dish that is prepared without water or a vessel. It consists of entrails that are placed unwashed in the stomach of the slaughtered animal. In between you push hot stones, sew your stomach shut and place the whole thing in the embers. The food is done after a short time.


Abbasids (العَبَّاسِيُون) family of caliphs in Baghdad 750-1258, descendants of Mohammed's uncle Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib; the best known Abbasid was Harun al Raschid

'Abd, Abd, Pl .: abid (arab. عَبْد - عَبِيد) servant, servant, slave; also part of place names and proper names

'Abd Allah, Abdallah (arab.) Servant of God

'Abd al-Qâdir, Abd al-Kader (arab. عَبْد)

'Abd el-Karim, Abd Elkrim (arab. عَبْدَلكَرِيم) Servant of the Gracious = Servant of God

'Abd er-Rahman (arab. َبْدالرَّحمَن) Servant of the Merciful = Servant of God

'Abd al-Aziz (arab. َبْدالعَزِيز) Servant of the noble = Servant of God

Abd al-Aziz Al-Hakim (arab. َبْدالعَزِيزالحَكِيم)

abelbahl (tam.) belbel: anabasis articulata, salt-loving herb

Abeyogh, abeo Goatskin water container, Gerba

Aberkan, Abercan, Berkan (berb.) black

Abesar (tam.) Talha, Ahaksh, Tamat

Abiad, f: beida, Pl .: bid (arab. ابيَض بَيضَا ۶ بيض) knows

abisgah (tam.) missuak

Abri (French) prehistoric settlement under a rock overhang

Abou, Abu, Bou (arab. أَبٌ - آبَا ۶) "father"; also father of ..., part of place names and proper names

Abu Ammar, Abou Ammar (arab. أَبُو عَمَار)

Abu Bakr (أَببَكْر) first caliph; Rashidun

Abu Dhabi

Abu Ghraib, Abu Ghraib (arab. أَبُو غَرِيب) "father of the stranger"

Abu Mohammed Al Maqdisi, Abu Mohammed Al Makdissi (arab. أَبُو مُحَمَّدٌ المَقْدِسِي) Issam al-Barkawi

Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi, Abū Musʿab az-Zarqāwī, Abu Musab al Zarqawi, Abu Musab al Zarkawi, Abu Mus'ab Al-Zarqawi, Zarqaoui, al-Sarkawi, al-Zarkawi, al- Zargawi (arab. أَبُو مُصعَب الزَّرْقَاوِي) Achmed Fadil Nasal al Chalaila, Ahmad Nazzāl al-Chalaila, Abu Ahmad, Abu Muhammad, Sakr Abu Suwaid; Zarqa
Before the United Nations, the US Secretary of State charged Colin Powell with murder on February 5, 2003. Z.'s alleged stay in northern Iraq at this time was taken as the reason for the US to war against Iraq. This was to prove a connection between al-Qaeda and iSaddam Hussein. In the meantime, however, the US has had to admit that this statement was simply wrong.

Abuna (arab. أَبُنَا) "our father"

Abu Al-Hawl (arab. أَبالْهَوْل) "Father of Terror": Sphinx

Abu Sibtin (arab. اَبُو السِبطَِْين) "father of the two grandchildren"; Nickname Alis

Disagreement Large piece of wool, women use it to hide their face and only leave one eye free.

Acawen, Pl .: Cefcawen, Chefchaouen (berb. شفشَون) the horns

Acgäli, Açgäli (hate.) Fountain

Achaba seasonal migration of nomads with their herds; see Acheb

Achabou (berb.) long and narrow gorge

agateized (gr.) Petrified by the action of silica (old wood)

Acheb, achab (عَشَّبَ) plant forms that bloom briefly after rain and then disappear again (ephemeral); (of 'ashaba'= cover oneself with plants?)

Achira, Akhira (arab. اَخِرَة) "afterwards"; Beyond

Achulli (beraber) Goats; wulli

Adab (arab. أَدَب) classic educational canon

Adam (آدَم)

adankadan (haussa) very little

Ädgharni (hate.) poisonous tree that causes Borwees or Elghesch.

Adhan, Azan (arab. أَذَان) call to prayer; see salad

Aden (عَدن) port city in southern Yemen

Vein (berab. + tam.) Foot

Adile Salt bars; Idjl: 1 salt bar, Taudeni: 4 salt bars

Adjragiya (arab.) Camel that goes astray while riding

'adjwa (arab. عَجْوَة) pressed dates

Adl, `Adl (arab. عَدْل) righteousness

Adobe (arabic-spanish) Adobe, adobe construction

Adoul notary

Adnan (عَدْنَان) legendary progenitor of the North Arabs

Adrar, Pl .: Idraren, Idrarene, Idrarn, Idurar (berb./tam. آدْرَار) mountain, particularly elongated mountain range, mountain range, mountainous country;
of Addiris, the old name of the Atlas Mountains (Pliny nat. 5,13)
In Mauritania: elongated dune; the 7th administrative region of Mauritania;
also part of place names; see Tadrart

Adrar n 'Deren (berb.) High Atlas; Adrar

Adu (arab. عَدُوّ) enemy

Ethiopis, Ethiopian Region Africa southern of the Sahara

Afar Women's garment, made of one piece, about 3 x 3 m² in size, which is wrapped around the body and weighted down at one end with the Asarou n 'swol key.

Afaris, Pl .: Iforas

Ifrit, Efreet, Pl .: Afarit, Afrit (arab. عِفْرِيت عَفَارِيت) Djinn: spirit of vengeance that punishes criminals; Djinns can be made assistants by people who wish bad things or want to inflict evil on others.

Aferran (berb.) (Bread) oven, from Latin 'furnus'

Afghanistan, Afghânestân (اَفْغَانِسْتَان)

Afilal (berb.) large wine or water jug

Afozo, afasos, aferzuPanicum turgidum: foul-smelling, nutrient-poor grass

Afullus, Pl .: Ifullusn (berb.) Hahn, from Latin 'pullus'

Afunas, Pl .: Ifunasn (berb.) Beef

Afurar, Afourer (berb. أفُورار) above (a river)

Afus izem (berb.) strongly stylized depicted lion paw; Izem

Ag (tam.) Son of

Aga, Agha (turk.) "older brother"; Lord Overseer; Title for Turkish officers

Agha Khan (turk.) "Lord Prince", head of the Nizaris or Khodjas, a branch of the Ismailis, by whom he is venerated as an imam.

Agadir, Pl .: Igidar, Igudar, Igoudar, Aguadir (berb. اگَادِير) "wall, granary"; Enclosure, fortified place, storage castle, fortified community storage, Irherm

Agarmarina crassifolia

Agelhok, Aguelhok, Pl .: Igelhâk (berb.) Depression with standing rainwater

Ageshira Millet sauce

Agdal, Agadal, Agoudal, Aguedal (berb. اگودال) "the private property"; Meadow, willow; Park, orchard, also storage area for troops; Allmend pasture area with fixed rights of use

Aghanim (berb.) Bamboo, zamr

Aghlabids Arab dynasty in North Africa (800-909), founded by Ibrahim Ibn al-Aghlab (800-810). The A. administered large parts of today's Tunisia with the capital Kairouan for the caliph in Baghdad. In 905 they were overthrown by the Shiite Fatimids.

Agnary, Pl .: ingärên (berb.) uppermost storage chamber in Agadir

Agoumi (berb.) Mountain meadow, mountain pasture

Agourram, Agurram, Aggiram, Pl .: Igouramen, Igourramen, Iguramen (berb.) Holy, holy men owned by the Baraka; Amrad, Marabout (arab.)

agrarian agricultural.

Agrarian state State whose economy is largely determined by agriculture. It is characterized by a high percentage of the agricultural labor force (over 60%) and the level of the gross national product generated by agriculture and forestry (usually over 20%)

Agrou (tam.) "Frog"; large festive collar, tadenite

Aguedim, Pl .: Iguedmane (berb.) Corner towers of the Kasbah

Aguelmane, Aguelman, Aguelmame, Agelman, Agelmam, Agulmim (berb. + tam. أگُولمَام) "the pond"; Open watering hole, mostly in a rocky landscape, lake. In the central Sahara, the word Guelta is more common.

Ahaggar (tam.) Hoggar Mountains in the Central Sahara, home of the Tuareg

AhakshTalha, Abesar, Tamat

Ahal (tam.) sociable, amorous, literary-musical gathering of the unmarried Tuareg, famous for lectures of verses and songs, "Minnehof"

Ahl el Kitab, Ahl al-kitab (arab. اَهْلالكِتَاب) "People of the Book"; includes Jews, Christians and Muslims, as opposed to atheists or polytheists (shirk). A special position of Jews and Christians in Islam is derived from the relationship between the religions.

Ahrar, Pl .: Harrari (berb.) "Free" (Berber's own name)

Ahrer Tuareg leather shield made of antelope leather

Ahidus, Ahidous, Ahaidous, Haydous, Pl .: Ihidas (berb.) Berber dance among the Berabs (or in the northern Atlas)

Akhbari (arab.) fundamentalist Shiite school, mainly represented in Arabia, based on the rejection of ijtihad advocated by Molla Muhammad Amîn Astaraâbâdi (d. 1624); Khabar

Ahlah (tam.) Festive gathering of friendly Tuareg families

Ahlan bik, Pl .: Ahlan bikum (arab. أَهْلاً بِك) Answer to Ahlan wa Sahlan

Ahlan wa Sahlan (arab. أَهْلاً وسَهْلاً) "Relatives and easy": you came as members (and not as strangers) and you should have it easy. Mainly used as a welcome in the Middle East. Answer: Ahlan bik or Ahlan bikum (if several people are present)

Ahmadiya, Ahmadiyya, Ahmadijja (أحمد)
1. Founded around 1240 by Ahmed al Badawi (1199-1277) in Tanta (Egypt), today widespread in Egypt; For the monks there is only a temporary life in the monastery. The conjugal sex life is particularly affirmed.
2. Sunni movement founded by Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad / Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad from Qadian in what is now Pakistan (1835-1908).

Ahwasch, Ahwach, Ahaouach, Ahouache, Haouache, Hawas (berb.) traditional Berber dance, especially the chleuh, in which only women dance.

'Aib (arab. عَيِب) "shame, flaw"; shouted out loud, it helps women expose who is molesting them. He is asked to behave according to Islamic traditions.

'Aïd (arab. عَيد أعيَاد) festival, holiday. The most important festivals in the Islamic world are Aïd el Kebir, Aïd es Segir, Mouloud, Achoura.

Aïd el Adha, Aid al Adha, Id al-Adha, 'id al-adha (arab. عَيد الأاضْحَى) Festival of Sacrifice; Aïd el Kebir

Aïd el Fitre, Aid el Fitre, Aid Fitre, Aid el Fitr, Id el Fitr, Id al-Fitr, Eid el Fitr (arab. اِفْطَار) Feast of the breaking of the fast at the end of Ramadan; Aïd es Seghir

Aïd el Kebir, Aid el Kebir (arab. عَيدالكَبِير) "Great Festival"; Festival of sacrifice, Aïd el Adha or Mutton Festival, Aïd el Adjar. Mutton slaughtered in memory of Abraham's sacrifice; It takes place 40 days after the end of the fasting month of Ramadan, on the 10th day of the month of pilgrimage (Hadj, also called Tabaski festival in the Republic of Niger.

Aïd es Segir, Aïd es Seghir, Aid es Seghir, Ayd es Sigir (arab. عَيدالصَّغِير) "Little Festival", also the festival of breaking the fast, Aïd el Fitre, or Sugar Festival is celebrated for three to four days at the end of Ramadan, on the first day of the month of Shawwal.

Aidi, Aydi, Pl .: Idan (berb.) Dog

Ain, Ain, In, Pl .: Aïun, Aioun (arab. عَيْنٌ أَعْيُنٌ ، عُيُونٌ) "eye"; here: well, source; also part of place names

Ain (arab.) Deminuitive to Aïn

Aïri (haussa) tarhalamt

Aissaoua, Pl .: AissaouiIslamic brotherhood, which includes snake charmers

Ait, Ait, Ayt (berb. ايت) "sons"; Sons of, especially with tribal and place names, e.g. Ait Seghrouchen = the sons of the jackal; like in arab. Beni

Aita, Aita, Ayta "Call": form of expression arab. Folk music

Ait Haddidou, Ayt Hdiddu

Ait Ouriaghel (berb.) live in the eastern Rif Mountains in Morocco

Ayatollah, Ayatollah (arab. آَيَةاللَّه) "Signs of God, miracles of God"; Title of the highest clergy of the Twelve Shiites

Aja'ib (عَجَب ، عَجَيْبَة - عَجَائْب) miracles

Ajiz bird

'Ajib (arab. عَيِب) snappy camel

'Ajra (arab. عَير) exquisite camel mare

Akal, achal, ashal (berb.) Earth

akbar (arab. أَكْبَرٌ) larger, from kebir

Akel Mouth rope

Aker red make-up, artificial or made from safflower dye

Akerbai (tam.) Tuareg man's trousers; Sarouel

Akhnif (berb.) embroidered khenif made of cotton with a red or orange medallion on the back, clothing of the Glaoua

Akh, Pl .: Ikhuan, Ikhwan (arab. أَخ إِخْوَان) brother

Akkar (tam.) Chief of the Issabats

Aklé, akle, aklee (arab., hassiana) rugged, difficult to pass, low dune area, looks like a regular pattern of fish scales from the air.

Akli, Pl .: Iklan, Ikelan, Ichlan; fem .: Taklit Negroid slaves or vassals of the Tuareg

'akrab, Agrap, Pl .: 'aqaribu (arab. عَقْرَب عَقَارِب) Scorpio

Akoufi, Pl .: Ikoufane (berb.) Storage container made of clay, cube-shaped with a cylindrically shaped neck, e.g. for grain, salt, dried figs

Aksoul (berb.) Snow shovel, also as a woven motif (Handira)

Ala Andalusian art music

Al-Aqsa, El Aqsa, Al Aksa (arab. مَسْجِد اَلْاَقْصَى) "The most distant"; Mosque on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem (Quds), third most important mosque in Islam

Alame, Pl .: alamat (arab. العَلَم) signpost, waymark; French Balise

Alawites, Alawites (َرَب.)

Alem, Alim, Pl .: Oulema, ulema, ulama (arab. عَالِم عُلَامَة) "Knower"; Scholar, expert on Islamic law (Ilm). A corresponding course of study gives A. the necessary knowledge.

Alemos Forage grass for camels

Alenda (arab.) Sea puff, provides the alkaloid ephedrine

Alesho Head veil (of the Tuareg)

alf laila wa-laila (arab. أَلفلَيْلَةٍ ووَاحِدَةٌ) "A thousand and one nights"; Collection of oriental fairy tales


algebra (arab.) Made-up word from the arab. title Al-gebr wa al-mukabalah a mathematical textbook

Algimat "Cour d'amour", meeting of the unmarried, is called in the Hoggar Ahal

Algarve (arab.) Gharb

Alghrem (berb.) male camel, sebum shirt

Al Ghassali, Al Ghasali, Algazel, Agazelius Abu Hamid Mohammed Al Ghassali, 1059-1111, Islamic theologian, wrote, among other things, "The contradictions of philosophers" and "Revival of the science of religion"

Alhambra (arab.) Al-Hamra

Ali (arab. عَال) high (also proper name)

Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Ali Ibn Abu Talib (arab. عَالاِبْن ابِي طَالِب) son-in-law of Muhammad, 4th Caliph / Imam of the Shiites

Ali Reza, Imam Reza (عَالرِضَا) the eighth Imam of the Twelve Shiites, his grave is in Mashhad in Iran

Al-Islam hua hall (arab. الاِسْلَام هُوحَلّ) "Islam is the solution"

Aladin, Ali ad-Din (arab. عَالالدِّين) literally: "Most High of Religion"


Alif (arab. الِف) a thousand

Alif mabruk (arab. الِف مَبْرُوك) thousandfold blessings (often used congratulations)

Allah (arab. اَللَّه) "the God", designation of God in Islam and among the Arabic-speaking Christians

Allahu akbar (arab. اَللَّهأَكْبَرٌ) "God is greater"

Allar (tam.) about two meters high fighting lance with a metal shaft with a wide forged end

Almohads (َلْمُوَحِّدُون) Moorish dynasty of Berber origin (1147-1269), which emerged from the religious community founded by Mohammed Ibn Tumert in 1121. The Almohads fought the Almoravids and ended their rule in 1147. They expanded their empire over all of northwest Africa.

Almoravids, Almurabitun (arab. المُرَابِطُون) Moorish dynasty of Berber origin (1061-1147), emerged from a strictly orthodox religious movement that reflected on the origins of Islam. The founder was Abd Allah Ibn Jasin (d. 1058), who missioned the Berber tribes in Senegal with his warrior monks from a ribat in Mauritania and then spread his sphere of influence over large parts of north-west Africa.

Almu (berb.) moist high mountain meadows

Alwat (tam.) hard desert grass, Schouwia thebaica, Schouwia purpurea

Amadal (tam.) Sand

Amahar, Amahagh, Amahag, Pl .: Imohagh, Imohar, Imouhar, Imohagh, Imochar, Imoschar (tam.) "the free": self-name of the Tuareg (Central Sahara, Hoggar)

Amazirh, Imoshagh, Imoshag, Pl .: Imaziren, Imazirhen, Imazighen, Imizighen, Imazirhene, Imascheren, Imasheren, Imajaren, Imajeghan (berb., tam.) "Free" (the Berbers' own name), the Tuareg also used the name for the highest rank, the "nobles"

Amajegh, Pl .: ImajeghenTuareg also designation for the highest rank, the "nobles" (South Sahara), see Amazirh, Amahar

Amajeil Shovel hoe

Amalgan drug

Amal (arab. أَمَل آمَال) hope

Aman (berb. + tam.) Water; also part of place names

Amana, Amânat (arab. اَمَانَة) loyalty, reliability, trustee office; entrusted goods; Care for the creation entrusted to man

Amanar Orion constellation

Amangal (tam.) Basket

amarillo (span.) yellow

Amazigh, Amazirh, Imazigh, Imazighn, Pl .: Amazighin, Imazirghin, Imaziren, Imazirhene (berb.) "Free"; Berber's own name, in German also 'Masiren'; Mazigh

Amcharab Typical Sahrawi furniture that doubles as a litter when riding camels

Ameital Pack sack

Amen (hebr.) let it be done, so be it

Amenokal, aminokal, amenocle (tam.) "Oldest"; elected head of several Tuareg families / tribal federations;
literally, for example: Lord of the country

Amghar, Amrar, Amrhar, Amahar, Pl .: Imgharn (tam., berb.) Village elder or elected head of a mountain village or tribal group (or several families or a tribe among the Tuareg); Amahar

Amine (arab. أَمِين اَمَنَا ۶) Guardian

Amitalen Load bags

'Amm (arab. عَمّ) uncle, father brother

Amman (عَمَّان) capital of Jordan

Amlal, melloul (berb.) White

Amoder Ramming rod with iron spike

Amghid, Amrid, Pl .: Imghad, Imrad, Imrid (tam.) Vassals of the noble Tuareg tribes

Amrabad, Amrad (berb.) Aggiram or Marabout

Amun-Re "Hidden Hearer"; King of the gods. Ammun was the city god of Thebes, Re the sun god.

Amzad, Amzar (tam.) Imzad


Al-Anbar (الْأَنْبَار) Iraqi province

Start (berb.) The height

Ansar (arab. انصَار) "helpers", the inhabitants of Medina in the community founded and led by Mohammed in Medina

Ansar al-Jihad (arab. انصَارالجِهَاد) Ansar, jihad

Ansar-al-Islami, Ansar el Islam, Ansar-e Islam (arab. انصَارالاِسْلَام) Ansar, Islam

Ansar al-Sulha (arab. انصَارالصُلْه) Ansar, Sulha

Ansar al-Sunna, Ansar el Sunna (arab. انصَارسُنَّة) Like many other Islamist groups in Iraq, the Ansar el Sunna pursues a pan-Islamic ideology that calls on all Muslims to fight against the American occupation forces in Iraq. Ansar, Sunnah

Anu, Pl .: Unan (berb.) Well, water hole that is less than a pitch (about 20 m) deep.

Anubis "who takes the hearts to himself"; God of mummification, depicted with a jackal head, helped the deceased to gain eternal life.

Anzet, Anzid (berb.Chad ground squirrel (Xerus erythropus)

animism religious concept, according to which not only humans, but also animals, plants, stones and other things are animated. Ancestor worship and various fertility rites are closely related to this religion.

Apodypterium Changing room of the Greco-Roman bathing complex

apse, Pl .: Apses (gr.) semicircular, also polygonal, mostly hemispherical vaulted part of the room

Aqal, Agal, Agali, Akal (arab. عِقَال عُقُل) Head band or head ring of the nomads made of goat hair, worn by men to hold the headscarf (koffije); Fetter

Aql (arab. عَقْل) "mind"; the scholars of the Baghdad school (Sheikh al-Mufîd, Scherîf al-Murtadâ) formulated the equality of tradition (Naql and Aql.

Aqqa (berb.) Gorge

Aquid (arab. عَقِيد) leader of a war campaign or raid, in modern parlance: Colonel

ar aâr el-horr (العَرْعَر الحرّ ؟؟) stinging juniper (juniperus phoenicea)

'ar'ar (arab. عَرْعَر) juniper

Arääg (hate.) if necessary, milk stretched with water and warmed up


Arab Emirates (اَلْاَمِارَاتالْعَرَبِيَّة)

Arab League Association of Arab States (founded in 1945), the seat of which is Tunis today. It strives for cooperation in the political, economic, military and cultural fields.

Arafat (arab. عَرَفَات) Name of a mountain and a plain near Mecca where the pilgrims (Hadj) stay on the 9th day.

Arat get ready, be ready

Arba (arab. يَُوْمالارْبَعَا ۶) four, Wednesday;
el Arba = weekly market that is held outside the village on Wednesdays.

Aghbalu, Aghbal, Arbalou, Arhbalou (berb. أغبالو) "the great spring of water"; also part of place names

Ardeb (arab. أَرْدَبّ ، إِرْدَبّ - أَرَادِب) measure of capacity, almost 200 l

Ardin a kind of balafong, with many strings and a soundboard made from a dried pumpkin, angled harp

Arfud, Erfoud (berb. اَرفُود) whereabouts of the camels

Argan (berb.) Argania, ironwood tree; Argania spinosa, endemic to southern Morocco

Argaz, Pl .: Irgazn (berb.) Husband, husband

Arghoulm, Urghoul (arab. أَرْغُول ، أُرْغُول) a wind instrument

Arhour (arab.) Well for irrigation, with ramp for draft animals

Arians Followers of Arianism

Arianism Doctrine of the Holy Trinity founded by the Alexandrian theologian Arius (256-336): The Father is not of the same nature as the Son, but a supernatural mediator between God and the world, who is confirmed in his unique primacy through his Incarnation in Christ; A. was condemned as heresy in 325.

arid (lat.) dry, desert-like. The evaporation potential is higher than the sum of the precipitation.

Ariel (hebr.) Air spirit

Aryans (sanskr.) "Noble"; Bez. For indo-iran. Peoples of the Indo-European language family

Arigilan Goodbye greeting

Arion Hut, house

arcade (from Latin arcus = arch) archway

armad forward

Aroki Load saddle

Arrak, Arraq, 'araq (arab عَرَق) brandy made from rice, sugar cane or palm juice

Arrem Village, hamlet; in the Hoggar: small, mostly treeless oasis with grain cultivation

Ar Sarret (tam.) "Goodbye"

artesian Wells in which the water rises automatically under the pressure of higher groundwater

Aghrum, Arum, Achrum (berb.) (Flat) bread (made from barley and wheat)

Arumi, Pl .: Irumin (berb.) by Roumi

Arummila, Al-rummlia (arab. الرَملِيَة) "the sandy one": empty sandy desert; Raml

Arzem Braided leather cord, attached to a copper ring pulled through a nostril of the camel, is used to steer and stop the animal, halter

Asabiya (arab. عَصَبِة) feeling of togetherness within the tribal community

Asahar (tam.) Song

Ashek (tam.) Proud

Ashkenazim (hebr.) The Jews in Central and Eastern Europe, in contrast to the Sephardim

Ashura, Ashura, Achoura (arab. عَاشُورا ۶) 10th day of the month of Moharrem; On this day the Shiites commemorate the martyrdom of Husain in the year 680 Christian calendar in Karbala; Muslims of all faiths usually fast on the 9th (Tassua) and 10th Moharrem, sometimes also on the following day.

Aseksäl, Pl .: iseksal (berb.) small window in the outer wall of Agadir

Asekfel, Pl .: isukfal (berb.) Stepping stone in Agadir

Aserdun, Pl .: Iserdan (berb.) Mule

Asfi (berb.) the mouth

Asida (arab.) Millet porridge, main dish of the nomads in Sudan

Asif, Assif (berb.) River, (dry) river bed, such as Oued, Wadi (arab.)

Asikel (tam.) Hoggar or Taudeni caravans

Asil (arab.) noble, of pure descent

Asir (عَسِير) plateau in Saudi Arabia

Askari (arab. عَسْكَرِي - عَسَاكِر) soldier

Asmodi (aram.) supreme evil spirit in Jewish superstition

Asr, Elassar, Salat al-'asr (arab. صَلَاة العَصَار) afternoon prayer (salad)

`asr as-sa`āda, ʿasr as-saʿāda, Asr as-Saada, Asri Saadet (arab. عَصْرالسَّعَادَة) "age of bliss"; the final years of Muhammad's reign in Mecca; Salafiyya

Asri (tam.) "Freedom of Morals", festival

Asrir, Asris (berb.) Reg

Asrom Loaf of pure bezasalt, 4kg

Asru, Azro, Azrou (berb.) the stone, rock

Assad (arab. اَسَد) lion

Hafez al-Assad Syrian President; Assad

Assarag (berb.) Dance floor


Assedjebes (tam.) Sarouel; Trousers of the Tuareg woman

Assekrem (tam.) 3000 m high double-peaked mountain, 72 km north of Tamanrasset, known from the hermitage of Pére de Foucald on the north summit

Asserda Awl

Assiou (berb.) soft stone from the Rif Mountains, used as a powder mixed with water to decorate ceramics

Asif, Assîf, Assif, Pl .: Isaffn (berb. أسيف) (small) river

Assink Gruel

Atankor Water point

Atakor (berb.) "Saddle button"; also transmit the humps of the Hoggar massif.


Athanasians Followers of the teaching of Athanasius (296-373)

Atlas (gr. جبال الأطلس) Mountains in North Africa

Atri (tam.) Star

Atrium (lat.) The central room of the Roman house

Auker (berb.) extensive dune area in which the individual dunes run parallel.

Aul (turk.) among the Kyrgyz tribes, among others, kinship community, village

Aulâd, Aulad, Oulad, Ouled, Ulad (arab.) Plural to Walad: children; Children of; also on the formation of proper names and tribal names, see Ben

'Auwda (arab. عَود) elderly female camel

Avicenna Abu Ali Ibn Sina

Awda (arab. وض) white camel

AwrasBerbers in eastern Algeria

Aya (arab. اياة) Koran verse

Ayar (tam.) Shield, made from the skins of billy goats or giraffes, held up against bumps and blows, trapezoidal shape, a little over a meter high and an average of half a meter wide.

Ayu (tam.) Yes

Ayyubids in Egypt 1171-1250

Azaghar (berb.) Plain, flat area

Azallo (berb.) Place of sacrifice

Azalai, Azalay, Azalaï, Azelaï, Assalai (berb., tam., son.) originally Salt caravan to Timbuktu and Taoudenni (Mali), but also often today: Salt caravan between Bilma and Agadez. Around 1970 around 20,000 camels were still traveling through the Tenere Desert every year to fetch salt in Bilma and Fachi.
Literally probably: "Composition of camels"

Azeghraf (tam.) Race of camels that serve as a pack camel for the salt caravans through the Tenere.

Azemmur, Pl .: Izemrarn (berb. اَزِمُور) olive

Azerf (berb.) Berber customary rights

Azhar, Al-Azhar (arab. الجَامِعالأَزْهَر) "(The) Shining One"; Mosque and university in Cairo, in the 10th century (C.E.) founded by the Fatimids, but today the center of the Sunnis

Azib (berb.) Shepherd's hut, cattle shed, shelter, agricultural yard, small mountain settlement

Al-Azifa (arab. الآزِفَة) the last judgment

Azîla, Asilah (berb. اَصِيلَة) "The beautiful"

Azilal (berb. ازيلال) the pass, the path between two mountains, free space between two tents, passage

Aznû (berb.) rectangular light opening in Agadir

Azru, Azrou, Pl .: Izra (berb. ازرو) rock

Azûr, azure (pers.) Roof terrace; the blue of the sky

Azzer Language of the indigenous people of Mauritania

Ba'ath, Ba'ath (arab. بَأث) renewal, resurrection

Bab, Pl .: Abwâb (arab. بَاب أَبْوَاب) entrance, gate, door, passage; also: strait

Baba (pers.-turk. بَاب) "father"; spiritual honorary title

Babushes, Babushes, Babouches, Boubouche (pers.-turk. بَابُوج) slipper-like pointed shoes without heel leather and heels

Badawi, Badu (arab. بَدَوِي بَدُو) Bedouin, Bedouin; Badiya

Badiya, Bâdiya (arab. بَادِية) desert, steppe

Bafura (arab. بَافُورَة) well (above the earth)

Baghdad, Baghdad (بَغْدَاد)

Baghl (arab. بَغْل بِغَال) mule

Bahai, Baha'i pantheistic, social religious movement from Persia

BahauscheHouse sa

Bahr, Bahar (arab. بَحْر) "sea"

Bahr belà mà (arab. بَحْر بِلَا مَا ۶) "Sea without water" = desert

Bahr el-Abiad (arab. بَحْر الابيَض) White Nile; Bahr, Abiad

Bahr el-Ahmar (arab.) Red Sea

Bahr el-Sheitan (arab.) Sea of ​​the devil = Fata Morgana

Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (اكبر هاشمي بَهْر مَانِي) Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Baiat, Bai'at al-Imam (arab.) Loyalty to Islam; in islam. Religious communities (e.g. Sufis) oath of allegiance to the Sheikh

Baida, Pl .: Bid (arab. بَيْدَا ۶ بِيد) steppe, desert

Baidan, Beidan (arab. بَْيضا۶ُون) Plural to Abiad: "White", self-designation of part of the Moors

Ba'ir, Pl .: Aba'ir, bu'ran (arab. بَعِر أَبَاعِر ، بُعْرَان) camel

Bait Kathir (arab.) influential tribe in southern Oman

Bakhnoug (berb.) large right-angled cloth, southern Tunisian mountainous region

Bakl (arab.) Canned dry milk

Baklawa, Baqlawa (بَقْلَاوَة) honey cake made from puff pastry, sugar-sweet baked goods; fat, heavy and very sweet, made with honey, nuts and almonds, sometimes covered with icing

Bako (haussa) Stranger, stranger

Bakr (arab. بَكْر) young male camel

Bakra (arab. بَكْرَة) young female camel

Baksheesh, Bakshish, Bakhshish, Baqshish, Pl .: Baqash (pers. بَقْشِيش / بَجْشِيش بَقَاشِيش) Tip, gift of money

Balafong, balafon

Bale People in the Eastern Sahara in the Ennedi

Baleala Speaks of the Bäle, Zaghaua and Kobe

Balek (arab. أَبَهَ ، خَلِّى بَالَك) "Take care of yourself!", Pay attention !, Attention!

Balise (French) Waymarking on slopes, arab. Alame

Bambara Mandingovolk on the upper reaches of the Niger, especially in Mali in the Ségou region, with around 3 million people and around 35% of the population, the largest ethnic group in Mali

Bamia, Bamiya (arab. بَامِيَا ، بَامِيَة) a kind of vegetable (hibiscus esculentus)

Bandar (arab. بَنْدَر) port, bay

Bandir, Bendir (berb./arab.) Tambourine, (bass) drum, circular goat skin drum

Banko A mixture of clay, crushed straw and sometimes cow dung. Used as a mortar for building and fabricating sun-dried bricks.

Baqilla, Bakilla (arab. بَاقِلَّا ۶) a kind of beans

Barad (arab. بَرَّاد) teapot

Barah (arab.) Pond, artificial harbor

Barzah (arab.) Chap

Baraka (arab. بَرَكَة) Grace, blessing, blessing, magical power in people and things

Barakalaufik, Barak Allahu fik (arab.) "God's blessing be with you"; is used as a thank you

Barchan, Barkhan (turkmen.) sickle-shaped shifting dune

Barrakan (arab.) Wool, mostly sheep wool; Shirt-like overgarment for North Africans, a cloth throw from Muslim women’s costume, which also hides the face

Baroud Fight, war

Bazaar, bazaar (pers. بَازَار) market in the Orient

Bash, bas (turk. بَاش) "head"

basilica (gr.-lat.) large, rectangular, mostly three-aisled building that served as a court, seat of authorities, exchange bank, and market hall

Basmala (arab. بَسْمَلَة) the formula Bismillah arahmani arahim´

Basmachi, Basmaji, Basmach (turk.) "Oppressor"

Basra (الْبَصْرَة) City in Iraq

Basiji, Basij (pers. بَسِيجِى) "who are subject to mobilization"; People's militia founded in 1980 by the Revolutionary Guards (Pasdaran) in Iran, known for the teenage volunteers in the war against Iraq.

B'stilla, Bastillia Elaborately prepared pate made from wafer-thin sheets of dough (Warkha), which is filled with raisins, almonds and pigeon meat, or with fruits and poultry.

Bata Riverbed

Batal (arab. بَطَل) hero

Asked (arab. بَطْن) "belly"; Front of a Cuesta (Schichstufe) at the foot of a rocky steep slope

Batha (arab.) generally sandy valley, sometimes the watercourse itself; Synonym for wadi in Chad

Batin, Batinah (arab.) Depression, sink

Batini (arab. بَاطِنِي) of batin: "inside, inside"; in the 9th century chr.Z. Shiite sect founded and spread until the 13th century in Iraq, Syria and Egypt

Batu, baba (tam.) no no

Bayezid Persian mystic

Bawah, Bowwah (-> بوح / بَاه) scouts, pasture seekers


Bedouin (arab. بَدُو) "The roaming": urban name for the nomad

Behemoth (hebr.) Giant animal

Bei, Bey, Bek, Beg, Pl .: Bakawa, Bahawa (turk. بك بَيْهٌ َبَكَوات بَهَوَة بَهَوَاتٌ) "Lord"; higher title

Begum (turk.) Titles of Indian princesses

Beiram (turk.) "Firmly"; Kurban-Bairam, Kütschük-Bairam

Beirut (بَيْرُوت)

Beit, Pl .: Buyut (arab. بَيْتٌ بُيُت) house

Beit el Haram, Bait al Haram (arab. بَيْتالحَرَم) "house of the sanctuary"; Kaaba

Beit Allahi (arab. بَيْتاللَّه) "House of God"; the building built by Abraham / Ibrahim and Ismael according to the Koran 2: 124-141, later the Kaaba

beiti beitkum (arab. بَيْتِي بَيْتُكُم) "My house be your house"

Beit sha'r (arab. بَيْتشَعْر) "hair house"; Bedouin tent made of black goat hair

Bektaschi, Bektashiyya, Bektaschijje, Bektashi, Alevilik-BektashilikDervish Organization in Turkey and Southern Europe; The founder of the order is Hadji Bektash Wali; At the center of their worship is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, whom they connect with Allah and Muhammad to form a trinity.

Belbelanabasis articulata, salt-loving herb, abelbahl

Belial (hebr.) Name for the devil

BellahCamel driver, freed slave

Belgha (arab. بلغة - بلغات ، بلغ) yellow leather slippers

Bemba Language or tribe on the Zambezi

Ben, Ibn, Pl .: Beni, Banu (arab., hebr. & # 05D1; & # 05B1; & # 05DF; اِبْن) "son"; Son of; also for the formation of proper names and tribal names, e.g. Beni Hilal

Bent, bint (arab. بِنْت بَنَات) daughter; Daughter of; also for the formation of proper names

Bent el-'Amm (arab.) Father brother's daughter, cousin

Benzoin (arab.) fragrant tropical resin

BeraberBerber group in the Atlas Mountains


Berber (بَربَرِي - بَرَابِرَة) from the gr. barbaroi= "Stranger": Hamitic indigenous population of North Africa: Kabylen, Beraber, Chleuh, Tuareg and others (barbari, lat.); You call yourself Masiren
In Berber languages, many masculine nouns begin with a vowel indicating the masculine; Feminines (and deminuitives) begin with t-. These markings do not belong to the root of the word, but are a kind of article. So Addiris is 'the Diris'.

Besara tasty broad bean soup

beslema "Goodbye"

Tillering Ratio of the number of grazing cattle to grazing area, overstocking

Bet Dini (hebr.) "Court of Justice", session of three rabbis authorized to act as judges

Betina (arab.Henbane, Hyoscyamus muticus ssp. falezlez

Betoumf, Betûm (arab.) Pistachio, pistazia therebinthus

Bettiya Sheet metal container for drinking water, 50 to 200l

Beza Table salt, salt powder

Bezoar (pers.) Stone from the intestines of ruminants, was considered a remedy

bezzäf, bsef (arab.) a lot

Biada White lime, used for the first coat of ceramic before the final decoration

Bianu Traditional festival in Agades with mask wearers.

Bida (arab. بِدَع) "innovation"

Bidjat (arab.) Tribe in the Ennedi Mountains, calls itself "Bäle", is divided into "Borogat" and "Bilia"

Bidon (French) Barrel, canister; from this also: slope marking

Bidonville (French) "Canister settlement"; slum

Bikbaschi, bimbaschi (بِكْبَاشِى) Major

Bil (arab. بِل) camel

Bilal an Ethiopian slave who was appointed first muezzin by the Prophet Muhammad. This is seen as an indication that Islam has no racial or ethnic differences.

Bir Biâr (arab. بِئرٌ آبَار) well (in the earth); see Hassi

Birka, Birket, Pl .: Birak (arab. بِرْكَة بِرَك) pond, lake, watering hole in the desert

Bismillah, bismilah (arab. بِسْماللَّه) "In the name of God"

Bismillah arahmani arahim, Bismillah rahman rahim, Bismillah ar-rahman ar-rahim (arab. بِسْماللَّهالرَّحمَنالرَّحِيم) "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving"

bit (arab.) Room

Blad (arab. بَلَد) city

Bled (arab. بِلَاد) country (e.g. Bled-el-Djerid), also in contrast to city

Bled al-Makhzen, Bled el-Mahzen, Bilad Al-Machsen, Bilad Al-Mahsan (arab. بِلَادالمَخزِن) "Land of Government"; unlike Bled es siba

Bled es siba, Bled es-siba, Bled Siba, Bilad es-Ssiba, Bled as-sâ'iba "the independent land, land of turmoil"


Bocher (hebr.) Talmudic students

Bordj, Bordsch, Borj, Burj, Pl .: Boroudj (arab. بُرْج بُرُج) bastion, fortification, fort, fortress, tower

Bordji (arab.) Administrator of a boardj

Borodschi (haussa) "Wilder", an insult for Bororo

Boroen Single name of the Bororo


Bororo "Cattle"; Nomads and ranchers of the Peulh race; Boroen

Borwees (hate.Illness caused by a poisonous Ädgharni tree causes the jaws to swell and eventually constricts the neck, so that suffocation ensues; also Elghesch

Boubou Wrinkled, wide, sleeveless robe of the Muslims in almost all Sudan countries. For the Tuareg it is called Tekatkat.

Boubou monkey

Bour Irrigation-based agriculture

Boul Thor (berb.) oxen hitched to a plow

Bow (arab.) Calf pupa, when the calf dies, it is used to stimulate the mother animal to continue producing milk


Brakna (arab.) ethnic group attributed to the Moors, the triangular omelette made from light puff pastry in the south of Brik today. The dumpling is filled with egg yolk, mashed potatoes, spinach and parsley and fried in hot oil. The filling can also contain tuna, meat or vegetables.

Brit milai (hebr.) Circumcision


Bu, Bou (arab.) Abbreviation of Abu

Bukhara, Bukhara

Buhaira (arab. بُحَيْرَة) lake


Bulanga Karite butter

Bulbul, Bulbul (arab., pers. بُلْبُل) Nightingale

al-Bunyan al-Marsus

Buraq (arab. بُرَاق) winged horse that Mohammed served as a mount during the Miraj.

Burda (arab. بُرْدَة) "upper garment"; Mantle of the prophet

Burghul (arab. بُرْغُل) softened, then crushed wheat

Burqa, burqa, Pl .: Baraqi (arab. بُرْقُع بَرَاق) "face veil"; Large circular scarf worn by women in Afghanistan and Pakistan with a cap sewn into the center

Burnous, Bournous (arab. بُرْنُس) semicircular cape or cloak with a hood, usually made of white wool

Burqu ' black curtain on the doorway of the Kaaba

Burs (arab. بُرْص) Wall gecko

Busu (haussa) "Slave, serf"; Still in use by the dark-skinned farmhands and gardeners, even if they are no longer in direct dependence on their masters; Akli

Buwaihiden, Bujiden (بُوَيُْون) Dynasty of Iran. origin



Büdsch (arab.) Bearded Vulture



Camii (Turkish mosque)

Camino (span.) Path

Truck (french, span.) Trucks

Carçi (turk.) Market; corresponds to bazaar and souq

Carretera (span.) Road

Canari Bulbous clay jug with a narrow neck

Cassiterite Tin stone, a mineral with the formula SnO2 that is exploited in the Aïr.

CEA Abbreviation for "Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique", French state society for uranium research

CEG Abbreviation for "Collége d'Einseignement Générale", the follow-up school to the six years of primary school in Niger. Another four years to get certified.

Ch ... see also Sch ..., Ch ..., Kh ...


Chaldeans (كَلْدَاِي)

Chalfa (arab. خَلْف) Camel mare who has recently given birth

Chaambi, Pl .: ChaambaNomads of the Northern Sahara in the vicinity of Ghardaia


Ayatollah Seyyed Alī Chāmene'ī, Seyyed Ali Chamene'i, Ayatollah Ali Chamenei, Sayed Ali Chamenei (pers. آَيَة اللَّهسَيِّد عَالخَامنهاي)

Khamsin (arab.) hot, dry wind of northern Chan, Khan (pers. K هَان) hostel in the Middle East, caravanserai

Chard, Ghard, Churd (arab.) large dune with a moving crest, mostly in the middle of a system of smaller dunes

Hasidism (hebr.) religious renewal movement in Judaism (18th century)

Chatami, Mohammad Chatemi, Mohammad Chātemī (محمد خَاتَمِي)

Chatun, Pl .: Chawatin (arab. خَاتُون خَوَاتِين) "lady"; deferential form of address for a woman

Chazar, Khazar (خَزَر) Member of a tribe on Lake Kaspi

Chawar (arab. خَوَر) not purebred camel

Chebka, Shabakah, Shebka (arab. شَبَكَة) "network"; transferred to a plateau cut up by ravines, a terrain cut up by a network of ditches; the plateau of the Mzab

Chekara, Shkara, Pl .: chkair (arab. شِكَارَة شَكَايِر) saddle bag; Leather bag, which is carried hanging on a strap on the left shoulder under the burnous

Chech, Schech, Schesch, Shech, chèche (berb.) fine fabric that is wrapped around the head as a turban cloth, 4 to 7 m long.

Chéchia red cap of the Zouaves

Chehda (berb.) Honeycomb

Cheikh, Sheikh, Sheikh, Sheikh, Shaykh, Sha`yik, Cha`ik, Chikh, Shaik, Cheik, Pl .: Chiouk, Schuyukh, Schuyuch (arab. شَيخ شُيُوخ مَشَاِيخ أَشْيَخ) village elder, head of a clan, tribal group or brotherhood, chief chief; Wise man, old man

Chergi, Chergui, Charqî, Schergi, Scherqi, Schergui (arab. شَرْقِي) "east"; hot, dry east (south) wind from the desert

cherub, Pl .: Cherubim (hebr.) Archangel

Chelhaoni, Pl .: Chleuh, Schlöh, Schluh, Schilh (شلوح) Berber group in the Anti Atlas in southern Morocco, subgroup of the Masmuda (allegedly Arabic foreign name from shallaha: rob)

Cherif, Cherif, Sherif, Sherif, Sharif, Pl .: Cheurfa, Chorfa, Shorfa, Schurafa, Shurafa, Shurifa, Schurfa (arab. شَرِيف - أشْرَاف ، شُرَفَا ۶) "elegant, noble"; Title of the descendants of Hassan or Hussein, the two grandsons of the Prophet Mohammed

Cherifa, Cherifa, Sherifa, Sherifa, Sharifa (arab. شَرِيفَة) female cherif

Chich (tam.) aromatic plant, the smell of which deters magicians

Chirsis Thief

Chisdar Wood splint

Chleuh, Schlöh, Schluh (berb.) Plural to Chelhaoni

Chorba, Shurba (arab. شُورْبَا شُورْبَة) north africa. Soup with vermicelli, tomatoes, onions

Chosroes, Chosrau, & # 03C7; & # 03BF; & # 03C3; & # 03C1; & # 03CC; & # 03B7; & # 03C2; (كِسْرَى) Persian Sassanid king

Choua (arab. شُوَا ۶) in a hole in the ground that is lined with brushwood and carefully covered on the outside, cooked whole mutton, seasoned with caraway

Chouari (arab.) Carrying basket with two large pockets that can be placed over the donkey's back

Chott, Shott, Schott (arab. شَطّ شُطُوط) "shore"; Salt lake, salt marsh, drainless basin with salt lake

Chumbos (span.) Fruits of the prickly pear (opuntia)

Chutib, Khutib, Khatib, Pl .: Khutaba (arab. خَطِْيب - خُطَبَا ۶) preacher; Khutba

clan (kelt.) Subdivision of a tribe

CNPAR Center National de Promotion des Artisans Ruraux

Coban Shepherd


Cram cram, cram cram Sudan Velcro, Cenchrus biflorus. Typical plant of the Sahel. The seeds have extremely annoying sharp thorns

Crêpe marocain (French) granular fabric in taffeta weave

Cuartel (span.) Barracks

Cuscus, couscous, cous-cous, couscous, kous-kous (arab. كُسْكُس ، كُسْكُسِي) North African dish made from hard white semolina or millet, cooked over steam, basic meal with numerous variations, possibly with vegetables, meat and hot sauce, or as a dessert with dates and milk (also Seksu)

Dabka (arab. دَبْكَة) Ir., Syr .: a kind of folk dance

Dahar (arab. ظَهْر) back

Dahir Decree

Daif, Pl .: Duyuf (arab. ضَيْف ضُيُوف ، ضيفان) guest

Daira (arab. دَائِرَة دَوَائِر) administration, administrative unit

Dakhla (اَلْدَاخْلَة)

Dakhla (arab.) "Entrance"; Gorge or couloir between two systems of dunes

Dakhil (arab.) Property right, asylum

Dalles (hebr.) Lack of money

Dalluka Drum that is beaten with the hands

Damara (tam.) wide, richly decorated belt

damask to Damascus: fabric with woven patterns

Dar, Dâr, Dhar, Pl .: Diour, Douar, Diar (arab. دَارٌ دُور دِيَار) house

Dar el Bey, Dar el makhzen (دَارالمَخزِن) Royal Palace, Makhzen

Dar ul-harb, Dar al harb (arab. دَارالحَرْب) "House of War"; all areas of the world not under Islamic rule

Dar el Selaa Warehouse

Dar ul-Islam, Dar-ul-Islam, Dar al Islam (arab. دَارالاِسْلَام) "House of Peace"; all areas of the world under Islamic rule, as opposed to Dar ul-harb, whereby the world is divided into "we" and "the others".

Darabouka, Darabukka, Darbouka, Darbuka, Derbuka, Dirbakka (arab. دَرَابُكَة دِرْبَكَّة دَرَبُكَّة) (small hand) drum, single-skin beaker drum, clay hand drum covered with animal skin, tambourine

Darijah Moroccan, the spoken language in Morocco

DARS Democratic Arab Republic of the Sahara (República Árabe Sahraui Democrática = RASD), proclaimed on February 27, 1976 in Bir Lehlou

Darb al-'Arba'in (arab.) Forty-day trail, caravan route from Upper Egypt to Darfur

Darb al-Hajj (arab.) Pilgrimage route to Mecca

Dari cold

Daryacheh (pers. دَرْيَاچه) lake

Dasht (pers. دَشْت) level

Dhow, dhow, dhow