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Orient, North Africa and Sahara glossary
(More on the problem of displaying words originally written in Arabic script in Latin script)
When explaining the terms are intentionally kept short. For more detailed explanations, especially on the terms of religion, reference is made to more specialized sources, such as those listed here.
The terms mentioned below come from the literature listed in books and magazines (or pdf version).
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Aavzu (hate.) a legume variety
Aaz (hate.) Gritty grain that grows in cobs on trees (Merkbe).
From (pers. أَب) water
'Aba, Aba (arab. أبَا ۶ ، أبَا ۶ ة) Bedouin coat
Abaidat Arab. Nomads in northern Cyreneica, from Baida or Baidan (?)
Abankor, abenkor, Pl .: ibenkar (berb.) Water point: a little deep hollow where you come across water after digging for a short time; see Tabankort, Ogla, Tilmas
Abatal Tuareg dish that is prepared without water or a vessel. It consists of entrails that are placed unwashed in the stomach of the slaughtered animal. In between you push hot stones, sew your stomach shut and place the whole thing in the embers. The food is done after a short time.
Abbasids (العَبَّاسِيُون) family of caliphs in Baghdad 750-1258, descendants of Mohammed's uncle Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib; the best known Abbasid was Harun al Raschid
'Abd, Abd, Pl .: abid (arab. عَبْد - عَبِيد) servant, servant, slave; also part of place names and proper names
'Abd Allah, Abdallah (arab.) Servant of God
'Abd al-Qâdir, Abd al-Kader (arab. عَبْد)
'Abd el-Karim, Abd Elkrim (arab. عَبْدَلكَرِيم) Servant of the Gracious = Servant of God
'Abd er-Rahman (arab. َبْدالرَّحمَن) Servant of the Merciful = Servant of God
'Abd al-Aziz (arab. َبْدالعَزِيز) Servant of the noble = Servant of God
Abd al-Aziz Al-Hakim (arab. َبْدالعَزِيزالحَكِيم)
abelbahl (tam.) belbel: anabasis articulata, salt-loving herb
Abeyogh, abeo Goatskin water container, Gerba
Aberkan, Abercan, Berkan (berb.) black
Abesar (tam.) Talha, Ahaksh, Tamat
Abiad, f: beida, Pl .: bid (arab. ابيَض بَيضَا ۶ بيض) knows
abisgah (tam.) missuak
Abri (French) prehistoric settlement under a rock overhang
Abou, Abu, Bou (arab. أَبٌ - آبَا ۶) "father"; also father of ..., part of place names and proper names
Abu Ammar, Abou Ammar (arab. أَبُو عَمَار)
Abu Bakr (أَببَكْر) first caliph; Rashidun
Abu Ghraib, Abu Ghraib (arab. أَبُو غَرِيب) "father of the stranger"
Abu Mohammed Al Maqdisi, Abu Mohammed Al Makdissi (arab. أَبُو مُحَمَّدٌ المَقْدِسِي) Issam al-Barkawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi, Abū Musʿab az-Zarqāwī, Abu Musab al Zarqawi, Abu Musab al Zarkawi, Abu Mus'ab Al-Zarqawi, Zarqaoui, al-Sarkawi, al-Zarkawi, al- Zargawi (arab. أَبُو مُصعَب الزَّرْقَاوِي) Achmed Fadil Nasal al Chalaila, Ahmad Nazzāl al-Chalaila, Abu Ahmad, Abu Muhammad, Sakr Abu Suwaid; Zarqa
Before the United Nations, the US Secretary of State charged Colin Powell with murder on February 5, 2003. Z.'s alleged stay in northern Iraq at this time was taken as the reason for the US to war against Iraq. This was to prove a connection between al-Qaeda and iSaddam Hussein. In the meantime, however, the US has had to admit that this statement was simply wrong.
Abuna (arab. أَبُنَا) "our father"
Abu Al-Hawl (arab. أَبالْهَوْل) "Father of Terror": Sphinx
Abu Sibtin (arab. اَبُو السِبطَِْين) "father of the two grandchildren"; Nickname Alis
Disagreement Large piece of wool, women use it to hide their face and only leave one eye free.
Acawen, Pl .: Cefcawen, Chefchaouen (berb. شفشَون) the horns
Acgäli, Açgäli (hate.) Fountain
Achaba seasonal migration of nomads with their herds; see Acheb
Achabou (berb.) long and narrow gorge
agateized (gr.) Petrified by the action of silica (old wood)
Acheb, achab (عَشَّبَ) plant forms that bloom briefly after rain and then disappear again (ephemeral); (of 'ashaba'= cover oneself with plants?)
Achira, Akhira (arab. اَخِرَة) "afterwards"; Beyond
Achulli (beraber) Goats; wulli
Adab (arab. أَدَب) classic educational canon
adankadan (haussa) very little
Ädgharni (hate.) poisonous tree that causes Borwees or Elghesch.
Adhan, Azan (arab. أَذَان) call to prayer; see salad
Aden (عَدن) port city in southern Yemen
Vein (berab. + tam.) Foot
Adile Salt bars; Idjl: 1 salt bar, Taudeni: 4 salt bars
Adjragiya (arab.) Camel that goes astray while riding
'adjwa (arab. عَجْوَة) pressed dates
Adl, `Adl (arab. عَدْل) righteousness
Adobe (arabic-spanish) Adobe, adobe construction
Adnan (عَدْنَان) legendary progenitor of the North Arabs
Adrar, Pl .: Idraren, Idrarene, Idrarn, Idurar (berb./tam. آدْرَار) mountain, particularly elongated mountain range, mountain range, mountainous country;
of Addiris, the old name of the Atlas Mountains (Pliny nat. 5,13)
In Mauritania: elongated dune; the 7th administrative region of Mauritania;
also part of place names; see Tadrart
Adrar n 'Deren (berb.) High Atlas; Adrar
Adu (arab. عَدُوّ) enemy
Ethiopis, Ethiopian Region Africa southern of the Sahara
Afar Women's garment, made of one piece, about 3 x 3 m² in size, which is wrapped around the body and weighted down at one end with the Asarou n 'swol key.
Afaris, Pl .: Iforas
Ifrit, Efreet, Pl .: Afarit, Afrit (arab. عِفْرِيت عَفَارِيت) Djinn: spirit of vengeance that punishes criminals; Djinns can be made assistants by people who wish bad things or want to inflict evil on others.
Aferran (berb.) (Bread) oven, from Latin 'furnus'
Afghanistan, Afghânestân (اَفْغَانِسْتَان)
Afilal (berb.) large wine or water jug
Afozo, afasos, aferzuPanicum turgidum: foul-smelling, nutrient-poor grass
Afullus, Pl .: Ifullusn (berb.) Hahn, from Latin 'pullus'
Afunas, Pl .: Ifunasn (berb.) Beef
Afurar, Afourer (berb. أفُورار) above (a river)
Afus izem (berb.) strongly stylized depicted lion paw; Izem
Ag (tam.) Son of
Aga, Agha (turk.) "older brother"; Lord Overseer; Title for Turkish officers
Agha Khan (turk.) "Lord Prince", head of the Nizaris or Khodjas, a branch of the Ismailis, by whom he is venerated as an imam.
Agadir, Pl .: Igidar, Igudar, Igoudar, Aguadir (berb. اگَادِير) "wall, granary"; Enclosure, fortified place, storage castle, fortified community storage, Irherm
Agelhok, Aguelhok, Pl .: Igelhâk (berb.) Depression with standing rainwater
Ageshira Millet sauce
Agdal, Agadal, Agoudal, Aguedal (berb. اگودال) "the private property"; Meadow, willow; Park, orchard, also storage area for troops; Allmend pasture area with fixed rights of use
Aghanim (berb.) Bamboo, zamr
Aghlabids Arab dynasty in North Africa (800-909), founded by Ibrahim Ibn al-Aghlab (800-810). The A. administered large parts of today's Tunisia with the capital Kairouan for the caliph in Baghdad. In 905 they were overthrown by the Shiite Fatimids.
Agnary, Pl .: ingärên (berb.) uppermost storage chamber in Agadir
Agoumi (berb.) Mountain meadow, mountain pasture
Agourram, Agurram, Aggiram, Pl .: Igouramen, Igourramen, Iguramen (berb.) Holy, holy men owned by the Baraka; Amrad, Marabout (arab.)
Agrarian state State whose economy is largely determined by agriculture. It is characterized by a high percentage of the agricultural labor force (over 60%) and the level of the gross national product generated by agriculture and forestry (usually over 20%)
Agrou (tam.) "Frog"; large festive collar, tadenite
Aguedim, Pl .: Iguedmane (berb.) Corner towers of the Kasbah
Aguelmane, Aguelman, Aguelmame, Agelman, Agelmam, Agulmim (berb. + tam. أگُولمَام) "the pond"; Open watering hole, mostly in a rocky landscape, lake. In the central Sahara, the word Guelta is more common.
Ahaggar (tam.) Hoggar Mountains in the Central Sahara, home of the Tuareg
AhakshTalha, Abesar, Tamat
Ahal (tam.) sociable, amorous, literary-musical gathering of the unmarried Tuareg, famous for lectures of verses and songs, "Minnehof"
Ahl el Kitab, Ahl al-kitab (arab. اَهْلالكِتَاب) "People of the Book"; includes Jews, Christians and Muslims, as opposed to atheists or polytheists (shirk). A special position of Jews and Christians in Islam is derived from the relationship between the religions.
Ahrar, Pl .: Harrari (berb.) "Free" (Berber's own name)
Ahrer Tuareg leather shield made of antelope leather
Ahidus, Ahidous, Ahaidous, Haydous, Pl .: Ihidas (berb.) Berber dance among the Berabs (or in the northern Atlas)
Akhbari (arab.) fundamentalist Shiite school, mainly represented in Arabia, based on the rejection of ijtihad advocated by Molla Muhammad Amîn Astaraâbâdi (d. 1624); Khabar
Ahlah (tam.) Festive gathering of friendly Tuareg families
Ahlan bik, Pl .: Ahlan bikum (arab. أَهْلاً بِك) Answer to Ahlan wa Sahlan
Ahlan wa Sahlan (arab. أَهْلاً وسَهْلاً) "Relatives and easy": you came as members (and not as strangers) and you should have it easy. Mainly used as a welcome in the Middle East. Answer: Ahlan bik or Ahlan bikum (if several people are present)
Ahmadiya, Ahmadiyya, Ahmadijja (أحمد)
1. Founded around 1240 by Ahmed al Badawi (1199-1277) in Tanta (Egypt), today widespread in Egypt; For the monks there is only a temporary life in the monastery. The conjugal sex life is particularly affirmed.
2. Sunni movement founded by Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad / Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad from Qadian in what is now Pakistan (1835-1908).
Ahwasch, Ahwach, Ahaouach, Ahouache, Haouache, Hawas (berb.) traditional Berber dance, especially the chleuh, in which only women dance.
'Aib (arab. عَيِب) "shame, flaw"; shouted out loud, it helps women expose who is molesting them. He is asked to behave according to Islamic traditions.
'Aïd (arab. عَيد أعيَاد) festival, holiday. The most important festivals in the Islamic world are Aïd el Kebir, Aïd es Segir, Mouloud, Achoura.
Aïd el Adha, Aid al Adha, Id al-Adha, 'id al-adha (arab. عَيد الأاضْحَى) Festival of Sacrifice; Aïd el Kebir
Aïd el Fitre, Aid el Fitre, Aid Fitre, Aid el Fitr, Id el Fitr, Id al-Fitr, Eid el Fitr (arab. اِفْطَار) Feast of the breaking of the fast at the end of Ramadan; Aïd es Seghir
Aïd el Kebir, Aid el Kebir (arab. عَيدالكَبِير) "Great Festival"; Festival of sacrifice, Aïd el Adha or Mutton Festival, Aïd el Adjar. Mutton slaughtered in memory of Abraham's sacrifice; It takes place 40 days after the end of the fasting month of Ramadan, on the 10th day of the month of pilgrimage (Hadj, also called Tabaski festival in the Republic of Niger.
Aïd es Segir, Aïd es Seghir, Aid es Seghir, Ayd es Sigir (arab. عَيدالصَّغِير) "Little Festival", also the festival of breaking the fast, Aïd el Fitre, or Sugar Festival is celebrated for three to four days at the end of Ramadan, on the first day of the month of Shawwal.
Aidi, Aydi, Pl .: Idan (berb.) Dog
Ain, Ain, In, Pl .: Aïun, Aioun (arab. عَيْنٌ أَعْيُنٌ ، عُيُونٌ) "eye"; here: well, source; also part of place names
Ain (arab.) Deminuitive to Aïn
Aïri (haussa) tarhalamt
Aissaoua, Pl .: AissaouiIslamic brotherhood, which includes snake charmers
Ait, Ait, Ayt (berb. ايت) "sons"; Sons of, especially with tribal and place names, e.g. Ait Seghrouchen = the sons of the jackal; like in arab. Beni
Aita, Aita, Ayta "Call": form of expression arab. Folk music
Ait Haddidou, Ayt Hdiddu
Ait Ouriaghel (berb.) live in the eastern Rif Mountains in Morocco
Ayatollah, Ayatollah (arab. آَيَةاللَّه) "Signs of God, miracles of God"; Title of the highest clergy of the Twelve Shiites
Aja'ib (عَجَب ، عَجَيْبَة - عَجَائْب) miracles
'Ajib (arab. عَيِب) snappy camel
'Ajra (arab. عَير) exquisite camel mare
Akal, achal, ashal (berb.) Earth
akbar (arab. أَكْبَرٌ) larger, from kebir
Akel Mouth rope
Aker red make-up, artificial or made from safflower dye
Akerbai (tam.) Tuareg man's trousers; Sarouel
Akhnif (berb.) embroidered khenif made of cotton with a red or orange medallion on the back, clothing of the Glaoua
Akh, Pl .: Ikhuan, Ikhwan (arab. أَخ إِخْوَان) brother
Akkar (tam.) Chief of the Issabats
Aklé, akle, aklee (arab., hassiana) rugged, difficult to pass, low dune area, looks like a regular pattern of fish scales from the air.
Akli, Pl .: Iklan, Ikelan, Ichlan; fem .: Taklit Negroid slaves or vassals of the Tuareg
'akrab, Agrap, Pl .: 'aqaribu (arab. عَقْرَب عَقَارِب) Scorpio
Akoufi, Pl .: Ikoufane (berb.) Storage container made of clay, cube-shaped with a cylindrically shaped neck, e.g. for grain, salt, dried figs
Aksoul (berb.) Snow shovel, also as a woven motif (Handira)
Ala Andalusian art music
Al-Aqsa, El Aqsa, Al Aksa (arab. مَسْجِد اَلْاَقْصَى) "The most distant"; Mosque on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem (Quds), third most important mosque in Islam
Alame, Pl .: alamat (arab. العَلَم) signpost, waymark; French Balise
Alawites, Alawites (َرَب.)
Alem, Alim, Pl .: Oulema, ulema, ulama (arab. عَالِم عُلَامَة) "Knower"; Scholar, expert on Islamic law (Ilm). A corresponding course of study gives A. the necessary knowledge.
Alemos Forage grass for camels
Alenda (arab.) Sea puff, provides the alkaloid ephedrine
Alesho Head veil (of the Tuareg)
alf laila wa-laila (arab. أَلفلَيْلَةٍ ووَاحِدَةٌ) "A thousand and one nights"; Collection of oriental fairy tales
algebra (arab.) Made-up word from the arab. title Al-gebr wa al-mukabalah a mathematical textbook
Algimat "Cour d'amour", meeting of the unmarried, is called in the Hoggar Ahal
Algarve (arab.) Gharb
Alghrem (berb.) male camel, sebum shirt
Al Ghassali, Al Ghasali, Algazel, Agazelius Abu Hamid Mohammed Al Ghassali, 1059-1111, Islamic theologian, wrote, among other things, "The contradictions of philosophers" and "Revival of the science of religion"
Alhambra (arab.) Al-Hamra
Ali (arab. عَال) high (also proper name)
Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Ali Ibn Abu Talib (arab. عَالاِبْن ابِي طَالِب) son-in-law of Muhammad, 4th Caliph / Imam of the Shiites
Ali Reza, Imam Reza (عَالرِضَا) the eighth Imam of the Twelve Shiites, his grave is in Mashhad in Iran
Al-Islam hua hall (arab. الاِسْلَام هُوحَلّ) "Islam is the solution"
Aladin, Ali ad-Din (arab. عَالالدِّين) literally: "Most High of Religion"
Alif (arab. الِف) a thousand
Alif mabruk (arab. الِف مَبْرُوك) thousandfold blessings (often used congratulations)
Allah (arab. اَللَّه) "the God", designation of God in Islam and among the Arabic-speaking Christians
Allahu akbar (arab. اَللَّهأَكْبَرٌ) "God is greater"
Allar (tam.) about two meters high fighting lance with a metal shaft with a wide forged end
Almohads (َلْمُوَحِّدُون) Moorish dynasty of Berber origin (1147-1269), which emerged from the religious community founded by Mohammed Ibn Tumert in 1121. The Almohads fought the Almoravids and ended their rule in 1147. They expanded their empire over all of northwest Africa.
Almoravids, Almurabitun (arab. المُرَابِطُون) Moorish dynasty of Berber origin (1061-1147), emerged from a strictly orthodox religious movement that reflected on the origins of Islam. The founder was Abd Allah Ibn Jasin (d. 1058), who missioned the Berber tribes in Senegal with his warrior monks from a ribat in Mauritania and then spread his sphere of influence over large parts of north-west Africa.
Almu (berb.) moist high mountain meadows
Alwat (tam.) hard desert grass, Schouwia thebaica, Schouwia purpurea
Amadal (tam.) Sand
Amahar, Amahagh, Amahag, Pl .: Imohagh, Imohar, Imouhar, Imohagh, Imochar, Imoschar (tam.) "the free": self-name of the Tuareg (Central Sahara, Hoggar)
Amazirh, Imoshagh, Imoshag, Pl .: Imaziren, Imazirhen, Imazighen, Imizighen, Imazirhene, Imascheren, Imasheren, Imajaren, Imajeghan (berb., tam.) "Free" (the Berbers' own name), the Tuareg also used the name for the highest rank, the "nobles"
Amajegh, Pl .: ImajeghenTuareg also designation for the highest rank, the "nobles" (South Sahara), see Amazirh, Amahar
Amajeil Shovel hoe
Amal (arab. أَمَل آمَال) hope
Aman (berb. + tam.) Water; also part of place names
Amana, Amânat (arab. اَمَانَة) loyalty, reliability, trustee office; entrusted goods; Care for the creation entrusted to man
Amanar Orion constellation
Amangal (tam.) Basket
amarillo (span.) yellow
Amazigh, Amazirh, Imazigh, Imazighn, Pl .: Amazighin, Imazirghin, Imaziren, Imazirhene (berb.) "Free"; Berber's own name, in German also 'Masiren'; Mazigh
Amcharab Typical Sahrawi furniture that doubles as a litter when riding camels
Ameital Pack sack
Amen (hebr.) let it be done, so be it
Amenokal, aminokal, amenocle (tam.) "Oldest"; elected head of several Tuareg families / tribal federations;
literally, for example: Lord of the country
Amghar, Amrar, Amrhar, Amahar, Pl .: Imgharn (tam., berb.) Village elder or elected head of a mountain village or tribal group (or several families or a tribe among the Tuareg); Amahar
Amine (arab. أَمِين اَمَنَا ۶) Guardian
Amitalen Load bags
'Amm (arab. عَمّ) uncle, father brother
Amman (عَمَّان) capital of Jordan
Amlal, melloul (berb.) White
Amoder Ramming rod with iron spike
Amghid, Amrid, Pl .: Imghad, Imrad, Imrid (tam.) Vassals of the noble Tuareg tribes
Amrabad, Amrad (berb.) Aggiram or Marabout
Amun-Re "Hidden Hearer"; King of the gods. Ammun was the city god of Thebes, Re the sun god.
Amzad, Amzar (tam.) Imzad
Al-Anbar (الْأَنْبَار) Iraqi province
Start (berb.) The height
Ansar (arab. انصَار) "helpers", the inhabitants of Medina in the community founded and led by Mohammed in Medina
Ansar al-Jihad (arab. انصَارالجِهَاد) Ansar, jihad
Ansar-al-Islami, Ansar el Islam, Ansar-e Islam (arab. انصَارالاِسْلَام) Ansar, Islam
Ansar al-Sulha (arab. انصَارالصُلْه) Ansar, Sulha
Ansar al-Sunna, Ansar el Sunna (arab. انصَارسُنَّة) Like many other Islamist groups in Iraq, the Ansar el Sunna pursues a pan-Islamic ideology that calls on all Muslims to fight against the American occupation forces in Iraq. Ansar, Sunnah
Anu, Pl .: Unan (berb.) Well, water hole that is less than a pitch (about 20 m) deep.
Anubis "who takes the hearts to himself"; God of mummification, depicted with a jackal head, helped the deceased to gain eternal life.
Anzet, Anzid (berb.Chad ground squirrel (Xerus erythropus)
animism religious concept, according to which not only humans, but also animals, plants, stones and other things are animated. Ancestor worship and various fertility rites are closely related to this religion.
Apodypterium Changing room of the Greco-Roman bathing complex
apse, Pl .: Apses (gr.) semicircular, also polygonal, mostly hemispherical vaulted part of the room
Aqal, Agal, Agali, Akal (arab. عِقَال عُقُل) Head band or head ring of the nomads made of goat hair, worn by men to hold the headscarf (koffije); Fetter
Aql (arab. عَقْل) "mind"; the scholars of the Baghdad school (Sheikh al-Mufîd, Scherîf al-Murtadâ) formulated the equality of tradition (Naql and Aql.
Aqqa (berb.) Gorge
Aquid (arab. عَقِيد) leader of a war campaign or raid, in modern parlance: Colonel
ar aâr el-horr (العَرْعَر الحرّ ؟؟) stinging juniper (juniperus phoenicea)
'ar'ar (arab. عَرْعَر) juniper
Arääg (hate.) if necessary, milk stretched with water and warmed up
Arab Emirates (اَلْاَمِارَاتالْعَرَبِيَّة)
Arab League Association of Arab States (founded in 1945), the seat of which is Tunis today. It strives for cooperation in the political, economic, military and cultural fields.
Arafat (arab. عَرَفَات) Name of a mountain and a plain near Mecca where the pilgrims (Hadj) stay on the 9th day.
Arat get ready, be ready
Arba (arab. يَُوْمالارْبَعَا ۶) four, Wednesday;
el Arba = weekly market that is held outside the village on Wednesdays.
Aghbalu, Aghbal, Arbalou, Arhbalou (berb. أغبالو) "the great spring of water"; also part of place names
Ardeb (arab. أَرْدَبّ ، إِرْدَبّ - أَرَادِب) measure of capacity, almost 200 l
Ardin a kind of balafong, with many strings and a soundboard made from a dried pumpkin, angled harp
Arfud, Erfoud (berb. اَرفُود) whereabouts of the camels
Argan (berb.) Argania, ironwood tree; Argania spinosa, endemic to southern Morocco
Argaz, Pl .: Irgazn (berb.) Husband, husband
Arghoulm, Urghoul (arab. أَرْغُول ، أُرْغُول) a wind instrument
Arhour (arab.) Well for irrigation, with ramp for draft animals
Arians Followers of Arianism
Arianism Doctrine of the Holy Trinity founded by the Alexandrian theologian Arius (256-336): The Father is not of the same nature as the Son, but a supernatural mediator between God and the world, who is confirmed in his unique primacy through his Incarnation in Christ; A. was condemned as heresy in 325.
arid (lat.) dry, desert-like. The evaporation potential is higher than the sum of the precipitation.
Ariel (hebr.) Air spirit
Aryans (sanskr.) "Noble"; Bez. For indo-iran. Peoples of the Indo-European language family
Arigilan Goodbye greeting
Arion Hut, house
arcade (from Latin arcus = arch) archway
Aroki Load saddle
Arrak, Arraq, 'araq (arab عَرَق) brandy made from rice, sugar cane or palm juice
Arrem Village, hamlet; in the Hoggar: small, mostly treeless oasis with grain cultivation
Ar Sarret (tam.) "Goodbye"
artesian Wells in which the water rises automatically under the pressure of higher groundwater
Aghrum, Arum, Achrum (berb.) (Flat) bread (made from barley and wheat)
Arumi, Pl .: Irumin (berb.) by Roumi
Arummila, Al-rummlia (arab. الرَملِيَة) "the sandy one": empty sandy desert; Raml
Arzem Braided leather cord, attached to a copper ring pulled through a nostril of the camel, is used to steer and stop the animal, halter
Asabiya (arab. عَصَبِة) feeling of togetherness within the tribal community
Asahar (tam.) Song
Ashek (tam.) Proud
Ashkenazim (hebr.) The Jews in Central and Eastern Europe, in contrast to the Sephardim
Ashura, Ashura, Achoura (arab. عَاشُورا ۶) 10th day of the month of Moharrem; On this day the Shiites commemorate the martyrdom of Husain in the year 680 Christian calendar in Karbala; Muslims of all faiths usually fast on the 9th (Tassua) and 10th Moharrem, sometimes also on the following day.
Aseksäl, Pl .: iseksal (berb.) small window in the outer wall of Agadir
Asekfel, Pl .: isukfal (berb.) Stepping stone in Agadir
Aserdun, Pl .: Iserdan (berb.) Mule
Asfi (berb.) the mouth
Asida (arab.) Millet porridge, main dish of the nomads in Sudan
Asif, Assif (berb.) River, (dry) river bed, such as Oued, Wadi (arab.)
Asikel (tam.) Hoggar or Taudeni caravans
Asil (arab.) noble, of pure descent
Asir (عَسِير) plateau in Saudi Arabia
Askari (arab. عَسْكَرِي - عَسَاكِر) soldier
Asmodi (aram.) supreme evil spirit in Jewish superstition
Asr, Elassar, Salat al-'asr (arab. صَلَاة العَصَار) afternoon prayer (salad)
`asr as-sa`āda, ʿasr as-saʿāda, Asr as-Saada, Asri Saadet (arab. عَصْرالسَّعَادَة) "age of bliss"; the final years of Muhammad's reign in Mecca; Salafiyya
Asri (tam.) "Freedom of Morals", festival
Asrir, Asris (berb.) Reg
Asrom Loaf of pure bezasalt, 4kg
Asru, Azro, Azrou (berb.) the stone, rock
Assad (arab. اَسَد) lion
Hafez al-Assad Syrian President; Assad
Assarag (berb.) Dance floor
Assedjebes (tam.) Sarouel; Trousers of the Tuareg woman
Assekrem (tam.) 3000 m high double-peaked mountain, 72 km north of Tamanrasset, known from the hermitage of Pére de Foucald on the north summit
Assiou (berb.) soft stone from the Rif Mountains, used as a powder mixed with water to decorate ceramics
Asif, Assîf, Assif, Pl .: Isaffn (berb. أسيف) (small) river
Atankor Water point
Atakor (berb.) "Saddle button"; also transmit the humps of the Hoggar massif.
Athanasians Followers of the teaching of Athanasius (296-373)
Atlas (gr. جبال الأطلس) Mountains in North Africa
Atri (tam.) Star
Atrium (lat.) The central room of the Roman house
Auker (berb.) extensive dune area in which the individual dunes run parallel.
Aul (turk.) among the Kyrgyz tribes, among others, kinship community, village
Aulâd, Aulad, Oulad, Ouled, Ulad (arab.) Plural to Walad: children; Children of; also on the formation of proper names and tribal names, see Ben
'Auwda (arab. عَود) elderly female camel
Avicenna Abu Ali Ibn Sina
Awda (arab. وض) white camel
AwrasBerbers in eastern Algeria
Aya (arab. اياة) Koran verse
Ayar (tam.) Shield, made from the skins of billy goats or giraffes, held up against bumps and blows, trapezoidal shape, a little over a meter high and an average of half a meter wide.
Ayu (tam.) Yes
Ayyubids in Egypt 1171-1250
Azaghar (berb.) Plain, flat area
Azallo (berb.) Place of sacrifice
Azalai, Azalay, Azalaï, Azelaï, Assalai (berb., tam., son.) originally Salt caravan to Timbuktu and Taoudenni (Mali), but also often today: Salt caravan between Bilma and Agadez. Around 1970 around 20,000 camels were still traveling through the Tenere Desert every year to fetch salt in Bilma and Fachi.
Literally probably: "Composition of camels"
Azeghraf (tam.) Race of camels that serve as a pack camel for the salt caravans through the Tenere.
Azemmur, Pl .: Izemrarn (berb. اَزِمُور) olive
Azerf (berb.) Berber customary rights
Azhar, Al-Azhar (arab. الجَامِعالأَزْهَر) "(The) Shining One"; Mosque and university in Cairo, in the 10th century (C.E.) founded by the Fatimids, but today the center of the Sunnis
Azib (berb.) Shepherd's hut, cattle shed, shelter, agricultural yard, small mountain settlement
Al-Azifa (arab. الآزِفَة) the last judgment
Azîla, Asilah (berb. اَصِيلَة) "The beautiful"
Azilal (berb. ازيلال) the pass, the path between two mountains, free space between two tents, passage
Aznû (berb.) rectangular light opening in Agadir
Azru, Azrou, Pl .: Izra (berb. ازرو) rock
Azûr, azure (pers.) Roof terrace; the blue of the sky
Azzer Language of the indigenous people of Mauritania
Ba'ath, Ba'ath (arab. بَأث) renewal, resurrection
Bab, Pl .: Abwâb (arab. بَاب أَبْوَاب) entrance, gate, door, passage; also: strait
Baba (pers.-turk. بَاب) "father"; spiritual honorary title
Babushes, Babushes, Babouches, Boubouche (pers.-turk. بَابُوج) slipper-like pointed shoes without heel leather and heels
Badawi, Badu (arab. بَدَوِي بَدُو) Bedouin, Bedouin; Badiya
Badiya, Bâdiya (arab. بَادِية) desert, steppe
Bafura (arab. بَافُورَة) well (above the earth)
Baghdad, Baghdad (بَغْدَاد)
Baghl (arab. بَغْل بِغَال) mule
Bahai, Baha'i pantheistic, social religious movement from Persia
Bahr, Bahar (arab. بَحْر) "sea"
Bahr belà mà (arab. بَحْر بِلَا مَا ۶) "Sea without water" = desert
Bahr el-Abiad (arab. بَحْر الابيَض) White Nile; Bahr, Abiad
Bahr el-Ahmar (arab.) Red Sea
Bahr el-Sheitan (arab.) Sea of the devil = Fata Morgana
Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (اكبر هاشمي بَهْر مَانِي) Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Baiat, Bai'at al-Imam (arab.) Loyalty to Islam; in islam. Religious communities (e.g. Sufis) oath of allegiance to the Sheikh
Baida, Pl .: Bid (arab. بَيْدَا ۶ بِيد) steppe, desert
Baidan, Beidan (arab. بَْيضا۶ُون) Plural to Abiad: "White", self-designation of part of the Moors
Ba'ir, Pl .: Aba'ir, bu'ran (arab. بَعِر أَبَاعِر ، بُعْرَان) camel
Bait Kathir (arab.) influential tribe in southern Oman
Bakhnoug (berb.) large right-angled cloth, southern Tunisian mountainous region
Bakl (arab.) Canned dry milk
Baklawa, Baqlawa (بَقْلَاوَة) honey cake made from puff pastry, sugar-sweet baked goods; fat, heavy and very sweet, made with honey, nuts and almonds, sometimes covered with icing
Bako (haussa) Stranger, stranger
Bakr (arab. بَكْر) young male camel
Bakra (arab. بَكْرَة) young female camel
Baksheesh, Bakshish, Bakhshish, Baqshish, Pl .: Baqash (pers. بَقْشِيش / بَجْشِيش بَقَاشِيش) Tip, gift of money
Bale People in the Eastern Sahara in the Ennedi
Baleala Speaks of the Bäle, Zaghaua and Kobe
Balek (arab. أَبَهَ ، خَلِّى بَالَك) "Take care of yourself!", Pay attention !, Attention!
Balise (French) Waymarking on slopes, arab. Alame
Bambara Mandingovolk on the upper reaches of the Niger, especially in Mali in the Ségou region, with around 3 million people and around 35% of the population, the largest ethnic group in Mali
Bamia, Bamiya (arab. بَامِيَا ، بَامِيَة) a kind of vegetable (hibiscus esculentus)
Bandar (arab. بَنْدَر) port, bay
Bandir, Bendir (berb./arab.) Tambourine, (bass) drum, circular goat skin drum
Banko A mixture of clay, crushed straw and sometimes cow dung. Used as a mortar for building and fabricating sun-dried bricks.
Baqilla, Bakilla (arab. بَاقِلَّا ۶) a kind of beans
Barad (arab. بَرَّاد) teapot
Barah (arab.) Pond, artificial harbor
Barzah (arab.) Chap
Baraka (arab. بَرَكَة) Grace, blessing, blessing, magical power in people and things
Barakalaufik, Barak Allahu fik (arab.) "God's blessing be with you"; is used as a thank you
Barchan, Barkhan (turkmen.) sickle-shaped shifting dune
Barrakan (arab.) Wool, mostly sheep wool; Shirt-like overgarment for North Africans, a cloth throw from Muslim women’s costume, which also hides the face
Baroud Fight, war
Bazaar, bazaar (pers. بَازَار) market in the Orient
Bash, bas (turk. بَاش) "head"
basilica (gr.-lat.) large, rectangular, mostly three-aisled building that served as a court, seat of authorities, exchange bank, and market hall
Basmala (arab. بَسْمَلَة) the formula Bismillah arahmani arahim´
Basmachi, Basmaji, Basmach (turk.) "Oppressor"
Basra (الْبَصْرَة) City in Iraq
Basiji, Basij (pers. بَسِيجِى) "who are subject to mobilization"; People's militia founded in 1980 by the Revolutionary Guards (Pasdaran) in Iran, known for the teenage volunteers in the war against Iraq.
B'stilla, Bastillia Elaborately prepared pate made from wafer-thin sheets of dough (Warkha), which is filled with raisins, almonds and pigeon meat, or with fruits and poultry.
Batal (arab. بَطَل) hero
Asked (arab. بَطْن) "belly"; Front of a Cuesta (Schichstufe) at the foot of a rocky steep slope
Batha (arab.) generally sandy valley, sometimes the watercourse itself; Synonym for wadi in Chad
Batin, Batinah (arab.) Depression, sink
Batini (arab. بَاطِنِي) of batin: "inside, inside"; in the 9th century chr.Z. Shiite sect founded and spread until the 13th century in Iraq, Syria and Egypt
Batu, baba (tam.) no no
Bayezid Persian mystic
Bawah, Bowwah (-> بوح / بَاه) scouts, pasture seekers
Bedouin (arab. بَدُو) "The roaming": urban name for the nomad
Behemoth (hebr.) Giant animal
Bei, Bey, Bek, Beg, Pl .: Bakawa, Bahawa (turk. بك بَيْهٌ َبَكَوات بَهَوَة بَهَوَاتٌ) "Lord"; higher title
Begum (turk.) Titles of Indian princesses
Beiram (turk.) "Firmly"; Kurban-Bairam, Kütschük-Bairam
Beit, Pl .: Buyut (arab. بَيْتٌ بُيُت) house
Beit el Haram, Bait al Haram (arab. بَيْتالحَرَم) "house of the sanctuary"; Kaaba
Beit Allahi (arab. بَيْتاللَّه) "House of God"; the building built by Abraham / Ibrahim and Ismael according to the Koran 2: 124-141, later the Kaaba
beiti beitkum (arab. بَيْتِي بَيْتُكُم) "My house be your house"
Beit sha'r (arab. بَيْتشَعْر) "hair house"; Bedouin tent made of black goat hair
Bektaschi, Bektashiyya, Bektaschijje, Bektashi, Alevilik-BektashilikDervish Organization in Turkey and Southern Europe; The founder of the order is Hadji Bektash Wali; At the center of their worship is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, whom they connect with Allah and Muhammad to form a trinity.
Belbelanabasis articulata, salt-loving herb, abelbahl
Belial (hebr.) Name for the devil
BellahCamel driver, freed slave
Belgha (arab. بلغة - بلغات ، بلغ) yellow leather slippers
Bemba Language or tribe on the Zambezi
Ben, Ibn, Pl .: Beni, Banu (arab., hebr. & # 05D1; & # 05B1; & # 05DF; اِبْن) "son"; Son of; also for the formation of proper names and tribal names, e.g. Beni Hilal
Bent, bint (arab. بِنْت بَنَات) daughter; Daughter of; also for the formation of proper names
Bent el-'Amm (arab.) Father brother's daughter, cousin
Benzoin (arab.) fragrant tropical resin
BeraberBerber group in the Atlas Mountains
Berber (بَربَرِي - بَرَابِرَة) from the gr. barbaroi= "Stranger": Hamitic indigenous population of North Africa: Kabylen, Beraber, Chleuh, Tuareg and others (barbari, lat.); You call yourself Masiren
In Berber languages, many masculine nouns begin with a vowel indicating the masculine; Feminines (and deminuitives) begin with t-. These markings do not belong to the root of the word, but are a kind of article. So Addiris is 'the Diris'.
Besara tasty broad bean soup
Tillering Ratio of the number of grazing cattle to grazing area, overstocking
Bet Dini (hebr.) "Court of Justice", session of three rabbis authorized to act as judges
Betina (arab.Henbane, Hyoscyamus muticus ssp. falezlez
Betoumf, Betûm (arab.) Pistachio, pistazia therebinthus
Bettiya Sheet metal container for drinking water, 50 to 200l
Beza Table salt, salt powder
Bezoar (pers.) Stone from the intestines of ruminants, was considered a remedy
bezzäf, bsef (arab.) a lot
Biada White lime, used for the first coat of ceramic before the final decoration
Bianu Traditional festival in Agades with mask wearers.
Bida (arab. بِدَع) "innovation"
Bidjat (arab.) Tribe in the Ennedi Mountains, calls itself "Bäle", is divided into "Borogat" and "Bilia"
Bidon (French) Barrel, canister; from this also: slope marking
Bidonville (French) "Canister settlement"; slum
Bikbaschi, bimbaschi (بِكْبَاشِى) Major
Bil (arab. بِل) camel
Bilal an Ethiopian slave who was appointed first muezzin by the Prophet Muhammad. This is seen as an indication that Islam has no racial or ethnic differences.
Bir Biâr (arab. بِئرٌ آبَار) well (in the earth); see Hassi
Birka, Birket, Pl .: Birak (arab. بِرْكَة بِرَك) pond, lake, watering hole in the desert
Bismillah, bismilah (arab. بِسْماللَّه) "In the name of God"
Bismillah arahmani arahim, Bismillah rahman rahim, Bismillah ar-rahman ar-rahim (arab. بِسْماللَّهالرَّحمَنالرَّحِيم) "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving"
bit (arab.) Room
Blad (arab. بَلَد) city
Bled (arab. بِلَاد) country (e.g. Bled-el-Djerid), also in contrast to city
Bled al-Makhzen, Bled el-Mahzen, Bilad Al-Machsen, Bilad Al-Mahsan (arab. بِلَادالمَخزِن) "Land of Government"; unlike Bled es siba
Bled es siba, Bled es-siba, Bled Siba, Bilad es-Ssiba, Bled as-sâ'iba "the independent land, land of turmoil"
Bocher (hebr.) Talmudic students
Bordj, Bordsch, Borj, Burj, Pl .: Boroudj (arab. بُرْج بُرُج) bastion, fortification, fort, fortress, tower
Bordji (arab.) Administrator of a boardj
Borodschi (haussa) "Wilder", an insult for Bororo
Boroen Single name of the Bororo
Bororo "Cattle"; Nomads and ranchers of the Peulh race; Boroen
Borwees (hate.Illness caused by a poisonous Ädgharni tree causes the jaws to swell and eventually constricts the neck, so that suffocation ensues; also Elghesch
Boubou Wrinkled, wide, sleeveless robe of the Muslims in almost all Sudan countries. For the Tuareg it is called Tekatkat.
Bour Irrigation-based agriculture
Boul Thor (berb.) oxen hitched to a plow
Bow (arab.) Calf pupa, when the calf dies, it is used to stimulate the mother animal to continue producing milk
Brakna (arab.) ethnic group attributed to the Moors, the triangular omelette made from light puff pastry in the south of Brik today. The dumpling is filled with egg yolk, mashed potatoes, spinach and parsley and fried in hot oil. The filling can also contain tuna, meat or vegetables.
Brit milai (hebr.) Circumcision
Bu, Bou (arab.) Abbreviation of Abu
Buhaira (arab. بُحَيْرَة) lake
Bulanga Karite butter
Bulbul, Bulbul (arab., pers. بُلْبُل) Nightingale
Buraq (arab. بُرَاق) winged horse that Mohammed served as a mount during the Miraj.
Burda (arab. بُرْدَة) "upper garment"; Mantle of the prophet
Burghul (arab. بُرْغُل) softened, then crushed wheat
Burqa, burqa, Pl .: Baraqi (arab. بُرْقُع بَرَاق) "face veil"; Large circular scarf worn by women in Afghanistan and Pakistan with a cap sewn into the center
Burnous, Bournous (arab. بُرْنُس) semicircular cape or cloak with a hood, usually made of white wool
Burqu ' black curtain on the doorway of the Kaaba
Burs (arab. بُرْص) Wall gecko
Busu (haussa) "Slave, serf"; Still in use by the dark-skinned farmhands and gardeners, even if they are no longer in direct dependence on their masters; Akli
Buwaihiden, Bujiden (بُوَيُْون) Dynasty of Iran. origin
Büdsch (arab.) Bearded Vulture
Camii (Turkish mosque)
Camino (span.) Path
Truck (french, span.) Trucks
Carçi (turk.) Market; corresponds to bazaar and souq
Carretera (span.) Road
Canari Bulbous clay jug with a narrow neck
Cassiterite Tin stone, a mineral with the formula SnO2 that is exploited in the Aïr.
CEA Abbreviation for "Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique", French state society for uranium research
CEG Abbreviation for "Collége d'Einseignement Générale", the follow-up school to the six years of primary school in Niger. Another four years to get certified.
Ch ... see also Sch ..., Ch ..., Kh ...
Chalfa (arab. خَلْف) Camel mare who has recently given birth
Chaambi, Pl .: ChaambaNomads of the Northern Sahara in the vicinity of Ghardaia
Ayatollah Seyyed Alī Chāmene'ī, Seyyed Ali Chamene'i, Ayatollah Ali Chamenei, Sayed Ali Chamenei (pers. آَيَة اللَّهسَيِّد عَالخَامنهاي)
Khamsin (arab.) hot, dry wind of northern Chan, Khan (pers. K هَان) hostel in the Middle East, caravanserai
Chard, Ghard, Churd (arab.) large dune with a moving crest, mostly in the middle of a system of smaller dunes
Hasidism (hebr.) religious renewal movement in Judaism (18th century)
Chatami, Mohammad Chatemi, Mohammad Chātemī (محمد خَاتَمِي)
Chatun, Pl .: Chawatin (arab. خَاتُون خَوَاتِين) "lady"; deferential form of address for a woman
Chazar, Khazar (خَزَر) Member of a tribe on Lake Kaspi
Chawar (arab. خَوَر) not purebred camel
Chebka, Shabakah, Shebka (arab. شَبَكَة) "network"; transferred to a plateau cut up by ravines, a terrain cut up by a network of ditches; the plateau of the Mzab
Chekara, Shkara, Pl .: chkair (arab. شِكَارَة شَكَايِر) saddle bag; Leather bag, which is carried hanging on a strap on the left shoulder under the burnous
Chech, Schech, Schesch, Shech, chèche (berb.) fine fabric that is wrapped around the head as a turban cloth, 4 to 7 m long.
Chéchia red cap of the Zouaves
Chehda (berb.) Honeycomb
Cheikh, Sheikh, Sheikh, Sheikh, Shaykh, Sha`yik, Cha`ik, Chikh, Shaik, Cheik, Pl .: Chiouk, Schuyukh, Schuyuch (arab. شَيخ شُيُوخ مَشَاِيخ أَشْيَخ) village elder, head of a clan, tribal group or brotherhood, chief chief; Wise man, old man
Chergi, Chergui, Charqî, Schergi, Scherqi, Schergui (arab. شَرْقِي) "east"; hot, dry east (south) wind from the desert
cherub, Pl .: Cherubim (hebr.) Archangel
Chelhaoni, Pl .: Chleuh, Schlöh, Schluh, Schilh (شلوح) Berber group in the Anti Atlas in southern Morocco, subgroup of the Masmuda (allegedly Arabic foreign name from shallaha: rob)
Cherif, Cherif, Sherif, Sherif, Sharif, Pl .: Cheurfa, Chorfa, Shorfa, Schurafa, Shurafa, Shurifa, Schurfa (arab. شَرِيف - أشْرَاف ، شُرَفَا ۶) "elegant, noble"; Title of the descendants of Hassan or Hussein, the two grandsons of the Prophet Mohammed
Cherifa, Cherifa, Sherifa, Sherifa, Sharifa (arab. شَرِيفَة) female cherif
Chich (tam.) aromatic plant, the smell of which deters magicians
Chisdar Wood splint
Chleuh, Schlöh, Schluh (berb.) Plural to Chelhaoni
Chorba, Shurba (arab. شُورْبَا شُورْبَة) north africa. Soup with vermicelli, tomatoes, onions
Chosroes, Chosrau, & # 03C7; & # 03BF; & # 03C3; & # 03C1; & # 03CC; & # 03B7; & # 03C2; (كِسْرَى) Persian Sassanid king
Choua (arab. شُوَا ۶) in a hole in the ground that is lined with brushwood and carefully covered on the outside, cooked whole mutton, seasoned with caraway
Chouari (arab.) Carrying basket with two large pockets that can be placed over the donkey's back
Chott, Shott, Schott (arab. شَطّ شُطُوط) "shore"; Salt lake, salt marsh, drainless basin with salt lake
Chumbos (span.) Fruits of the prickly pear (opuntia)
Chutib, Khutib, Khatib, Pl .: Khutaba (arab. خَطِْيب - خُطَبَا ۶) preacher; Khutba
clan (kelt.) Subdivision of a tribe
CNPAR Center National de Promotion des Artisans Ruraux
Cram cram, cram cram Sudan Velcro, Cenchrus biflorus. Typical plant of the Sahel. The seeds have extremely annoying sharp thorns
Crêpe marocain (French) granular fabric in taffeta weave
Cuartel (span.) Barracks
Cuscus, couscous, cous-cous, couscous, kous-kous (arab. كُسْكُس ، كُسْكُسِي) North African dish made from hard white semolina or millet, cooked over steam, basic meal with numerous variations, possibly with vegetables, meat and hot sauce, or as a dessert with dates and milk (also Seksu)
Dabka (arab. دَبْكَة) Ir., Syr .: a kind of folk dance
Dahar (arab. ظَهْر) back
Daif, Pl .: Duyuf (arab. ضَيْف ضُيُوف ، ضيفان) guest
Daira (arab. دَائِرَة دَوَائِر) administration, administrative unit
Dakhla (arab.) "Entrance"; Gorge or couloir between two systems of dunes
Dakhil (arab.) Property right, asylum
Dalles (hebr.) Lack of money
Dalluka Drum that is beaten with the hands
Damara (tam.) wide, richly decorated belt
damask to Damascus: fabric with woven patterns
Dar, Dâr, Dhar, Pl .: Diour, Douar, Diar (arab. دَارٌ دُور دِيَار) house
Dar el Bey, Dar el makhzen (دَارالمَخزِن) Royal Palace, Makhzen
Dar ul-harb, Dar al harb (arab. دَارالحَرْب) "House of War"; all areas of the world not under Islamic rule
Dar el Selaa Warehouse
Dar ul-Islam, Dar-ul-Islam, Dar al Islam (arab. دَارالاِسْلَام) "House of Peace"; all areas of the world under Islamic rule, as opposed to Dar ul-harb, whereby the world is divided into "we" and "the others".
Darabouka, Darabukka, Darbouka, Darbuka, Derbuka, Dirbakka (arab. دَرَابُكَة دِرْبَكَّة دَرَبُكَّة) (small hand) drum, single-skin beaker drum, clay hand drum covered with animal skin, tambourine
Darijah Moroccan, the spoken language in Morocco
DARS Democratic Arab Republic of the Sahara (República Árabe Sahraui Democrática = RASD), proclaimed on February 27, 1976 in Bir Lehlou
Darb al-'Arba'in (arab.) Forty-day trail, caravan route from Upper Egypt to Darfur
Darb al-Hajj (arab.) Pilgrimage route to Mecca
Daryacheh (pers. دَرْيَاچه) lake
Dasht (pers. دَشْت) level
Dhow, dhow, dhow
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