What's in R programming 1
Programming with R: Everything that happens is a function call
R is an implementation of the S programming language that was created in the 1970s by John Chambers was developed at Bell Labs. R was written from 1992 by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman and distributed from 1993; it has existed since 1997 R Development Core Team, of which John Chambers is a member. The following quote comes from Chambers, which characterizes the main features of R:
Everything that exists is an object.
All that happens is a function call.
Everything is a function call
How literally the second part of the quotation is to be taken is illustrated below: Even unsuspicious characters like “+” and “-” are functions. Proof:3 + 4  7 > "+"(3, 4)  7
Since the plus sign is not a "normal" letter, it must be enclosed in quotation marks (double or single, so-called. backticks) can be set. Otherwise it works like other function calls: Function name (parameter 1, parameter 2), like about
mean (x, na.rm = TRUE).
This also applies to the minus sign ...21 / 3  7 > "/"(21, 3)  7
... as for divisions and (not shown above) for multiplications "*".
The math operators are called infix operators denotes: they stand between, not before the function parameters (prefix). Further infix operators are marked with% signs, e.g. B.% in% to check whether certain characters appear in a vector, or% *% for matrix multiplications. The high flexibility of R also includes the possibility of defining your own infix operators.
Also the so-called. subsetting, i.e. access to individual elements of data structures with square brackets, is a function call:mtcars [1, 3]  160> "[" (mtcars, 1, 3)  160
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